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Er Celtic Birdlip Grave det sidste hvilested for dronning Boudicca?

Er Celtic Birdlip Grave det sidste hvilested for dronning Boudicca?


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For over et århundrede siden faldt en gruppe arbejdere over tre gamle keltiske grave nær Birdlip i Gloucestershire, England. Den centrale grav indeholdt rester af en kvinde sammen med en skatkammer, herunder et bronzespejl, der beskrives som et af de fineste genstande inden for keltisk kunst, der kan overleve i dag. En række forskere har antydet, at graven kan være det længe tabte hvilested for Boudicca, dronningen af ​​Iceni-stammen, en keltisk klan, der forenede en række britiske stammer i oprør mod besættelsesstyrkerne i Romerriget i 60-61 e.Kr. .

Udsigt over Birdlip, Gloucestershire, hvor der blev fundet tre gamle keltiske grave, der kan tilhøre dronning Boudicca og hendes to døtre ( Wikimedia Commons )

Boudicca, den keltiske dronning, der udløste raseri over romerne

I 43 e.Kr., før Boudicca nåede voksenalderen, invaderede romerne Storbritannien, og de fleste af de keltiske stammer blev tvunget til at underkaste sig. Imidlertid tillod romerne to keltiske konger at beholde noget af deres traditionelle magt, da det var normal romersk praksis at tillade kongeriger deres uafhængighed i deres klientkonges levetid, som derefter ville acceptere at overlade sit rige til Rom i hans testamente. En af disse konger var Prasutagus, som Boudicca giftede sig med i en alder af 18. Sammen havde de to døtre, kaldet Isolda og Siora.

I 60 e.Kr. ændrede livet sig dramatisk for Boudicca med hendes mands død. Da Prasutagus havde regeret som en nominelt uafhængig, men tvunget 'allieret' til Rom, overlod han sit rige i fællesskab til sin kone og døtre og den romerske kejser. Imidlertid tillod romersk lov kun arv gennem den mandlige linje, så da Prasutagus døde, blev hans rige annekteret, adelsmændene blev taget som slaver, Boudicca blev offentligt pisket, og deres døtre blev voldtaget. Dette skulle vise sig at være katalysatoren, der ville få Boudicca til at kræve hævn mod de brutale angribere i hendes lande.

Kunstnerens skildring af dronning Boudicca med hendes hær i baggrunden. Billedkilde .

Boudicca forenede en række keltiske forsøg på at kæmpe mod romerne, og det lykkedes berømt at besejre romerne i tre store kampe ved Camulodunum (nu nutidens Colchester), Londinium (moderne London) og Verulamium (nu kendt som St. Albans), men deres sejre ville ikke vare. Romerne samledes og til sidst knuste oprørerne, henrettede tusinder af Iceni og tog resten som slaver.

  • Boudicca, den keltiske dronning, der udløste raseri over romerne
  • Boudicca, den keltiske dronning, der udløste raseri over romerne - Del 2
  • Gylden skat af romerske smykker fundet skjult for dronning Boudicca og hendes hær

Boudiccas død og begravelse

Det vides ikke præcist, hvad der skete med Boudicca efter krigen. Den gamle romerske historiker Tacitus udtalte, at hun flygtede med sine døtre til en anden del af Storbritannien, hvor de drak af en forgiftet kalk og døde, mens den græske historiker Cassius Dio skrev, at hun døde af sygdom og fik en overdådig begravelse.

Uanset hvad ser det ud til, at Boudicca og hendes døtre blev reddet fra en skæbne, der var værre end døden. Havde de været taget til fange, ville romerne have fået dem til at gå i en sejrsparade, før de torturerede dem og viste deres kroppe til jublende folkemængder. Opholdsstedet for deres kroppe er også indhyllet i mystik, og der er ingen mangel på teorier om, hvor hun endelig blev begravet. Nogle mennesker tror, ​​at Boudicca blev begravet på Stonehenge, mens andre foreslår Norfolk, Hampstead i det nordlige London eller endda under en platform, der tilhører Londons Kings Cross Station. Selvom der er få beviser for at binde Boudicca til nogen af ​​disse steder, indeholder gravene i Birdlip, Gloucestershire nogle interessante træk, der måske bare tyder på, at de holder resterne af Boudicca og hendes to døtre.

Boudicca Haranguing the Britons ’af John Opie. ( Wikipedia)

Birdlip Grave Group

Birdlip -gravene blev først opdaget i 1879 af et par mænd, der gravede sten til vejreparation på skarpen med udsigt over Vale of Gloucester i Birdlip. John Bellows, der ofte kaldes 'far til Gloucester arkæologi', undersøgte gravene og registrerede tre begravelser i træk dateret til den midterste del af 1. st århundrede e.Kr. Den centrale grav siges at indeholde skeletrester af en kvinde sammen med talrige gravvarer, herunder et udsmykket håndholdt spejl af bronze, to fine bronzeskåle (hvoraf den ene blev placeret over kvindens ansigt), armbånd, det stiliserede ansigt på en fugl i en sølv forgyldt broche, en pincet, fem støbte bronzeringe, et håndtag af bronskniv formet som hovedet på en tyr, en ravhalskæde og en eksotisk sten, der muligvis stammer fra Kina. Skatte er nu placeret i Gloucester City Museum og Art Gallery.

Det vigtigste objekt, der blev fundet i graven, var det spektakulære bronzespejl, der var stærkt poleret til reflekser på den ene side og dekoreret med mønstre, der var bearbejdet i metallet på den anden. Håndtaget består af en række sammenlåsende sløjfer, der omslutter røde emaljerede prikker.

Bronzespejlet fundet i den centrale fuglelipegrav. (realmsofgoldthenovel)

Tilhører Birdlip -gravene Boudicca og hendes døtre?

De værdifulde og udsmykkede gravgoder, der findes i fuglelipens hovedgrav, har fået eksperter til at konkludere, at den person, der blev begravet der, havde kongelig eller elitestatus. En række andre faktorer antyder Boudicca som ejer af graven.

  • Tilstedeværelsen af ​​rav giver en forbindelse til East Anglia, det område, der blev styret af Boudiccas Iceni -stamme for omkring to årtusinder siden - rav kom primært fra Nordsøkysten i East Anglia.
  • Birdlip (engang regionen 'Dobunnic') var hjemsted for Dobunni -stammen i slutningen af ​​jernalderen. Nogle historikere mener, at Dobunnic var Boudiccas stammeoprindelse, og at hun muligvis er flygtet til sit hjemland efter at have tabt den sidste kamp mod romerne. Andre foreslår, at Dobunni var Icenis allierede og tilbød at give Boudicca et sikkert tilflugtssted. Dobunniske valutaer er fundet i East Anglia, hvilket tyder på en forbindelse mellem Dobunni og Iceni. Mange Dobunniske mønter er også fundet påskrevet med BODVOC, som er blevet foreslået som Boudiccas keltiske navn.
  • En primær kvindegrav og to ledsagende hungrave passer godt til muligheden for at være dronning Boudicca og hendes to døtre.
  • Gravene er dateret til midten af ​​1 st århundrede e.Kr., den samme periode, hvor Boudiccas stamme faldt til romerne.

Selvom muligheden for, at Birdlip -gravene tilhører Boudicca og hendes døtre er utrolig spændende, mangler der stadig mangel på hårde beviser, der forbinder de to sammen. Malcolm J. Watkins, forfattere til 'The Mysterious Birdlip Grave Group: Trying To Understand Story of One of Our Finest Archaeological Treasures', påpeger også, at gravene kun er blevet mærket som kvindelige begravelser baseret på typen af ​​gravvarer og ikke på en korrekt analyse af resterne. Han mener, at det er lige så muligt, at den primære grav er en mandlig begravelse og tilhørte en shamanpræst.

Indtil yderligere beviser dukker op, forbliver forbindelsen Boudicca - Birdlip kun en hypotese, og mens hendes sidste hvilested endnu ikke kan bekræftes med sikkerhed, huskes Boudiccas navn fortsat som den modige krigerdronning, der kæmpede for undertrykkelsesfrihed, for sig selv og alle de keltiske stammer i Storbritannien.


Den paranormale database

Sted: Birdlip (Gloucestershire) - Barrow Wake, Crickley Hill
Type: Forklaring
Dato / tid: 1879
Yderligere kommentarer: Tre skeletter, to mænd og en hun, blev opdaget her i 1879. Objekter fundet med ligene omfattede en sølvbroche og et spejl, hvis værdi fik nogle til at spekulere i graven tilhørte Boudica.

Gravsted

Beliggenhed: Birmingham (West Midlands) - Parsons Hill, Metchley Camp, mark ved siden af ​​McDonald's, Kings Norton
Type: Forklaring
Dato / tid: Stadig til stede
Yderligere kommentarer: Da romerske levninger blev opdaget i dette felt, erklærede nogle få området for at være Boudicas sidste hvilested. Desværre er der intet, der tyder på, at dette virkelig er tilfældet.

Cammeringham Light

Sted: Cammeringham (Lincolnshire) - Område omkring Ermine Street
Type: Haunting Manifestation
Dato / tid: 1950
Yderligere kommentarer: Denne store hvide disede form er blevet observeret, når den rejser rundt i landsbyen. Nogle mener, at dette er Boadiceas spøgelse, der kæmpede sin sidste kamp i nærheden.

Endnu et slagsted

Beliggenhed: Church Stowe (Northamptonshire) - Valley vest for Church Stowe
Type: Forklaring
Dato / tid: Stadig til stede
Yderligere kommentarer: John Pegg nominerede dette område som Boudicas sidste slagsted i 2010 efter en landskabsanalyse.

Boudica

Beliggenhed: Epping Forest (Essex) - Hill Fort, Ambresbury Banks
Type: Haunting Manifestation
Dato / tid: Ukendt
Yderligere kommentarer: Påstået af nogle at være hendes grav (og andre, hendes sidste slagmark), er Boudica blevet rapporteret om at slentre i området.

Boudiccas grave

Sted: Garboldisham (Norfolk) - Soldier's Hill (barrows) på heden
Type: Forklaring
Dato / tid: Stadig til stede
Yderligere kommentarer: Da det er udbredt opfattelse, at Boudicca boede i dette område af Norfolk, er disse barrows udfordrere som krigerdronningens sidste hvilested.

Kamp

Beliggenhed: Handley Cross? (Dorset) - Præcis placering ukendt
Type: Forklaring
Dato / tid: Ukendt
Yderligere kommentarer: En lokal tradition siger, at dronningen af ​​Iceni kæmpede en kamp her, selvom der ikke er beviser for at bekræfte dette.

Boudicas nederlag

Beliggenhed: High Cross (Leicestershire) - Watling Street og Fosse Way -krydset
Type: Forklaring
Dato / tid: Ukendt
Yderligere kommentarer: Dette område er en anden mulig udfordrer for, hvor krigerdronningens hær faldt.

John Thurlow Reade

Sted: Ipsden (Oxfordshire) - Icknield Way, hvid mindesten
Type: Post-mortem manifestation
Dato / tid: 1827?
Yderligere kommentarer: Johns spøgelse blev set af hans mor på stedet nu markeret med mindesten - han var netop død i Indien på omtrent samme tidspunkt som observationen. Icknield Way har flere spøgelser rapporteret langs den, herunder fantomtrænere, shucks, romere og Boadiceas legion.

Boudicas sidste stand

Beliggenhed: Mancetter (Warwickshire) - Generelt område
Type: Forklaring
Dato / tid: Første århundrede e.Kr.
Yderligere kommentarer: Landsbyen Mancetter er et af de sandsynlige steder, hvor Boudicca kæmpede sin sidste kamp mod romerne, en kamp, ​​der kostede Iceni 80.000 mænd, kvinder og børn.

Boudicas kamp

Beliggenhed: Messing-cum-Inworth (Essex)-websted kendt som 'The Rampart'
Type: Forklaring
Dato / tid: Stadig til stede
Yderligere kommentarer: Lokal legende siger, at dette var stedet for Boudicas sidste kamp.

Vejledende lys

Beliggenhed: Nannerch (Clwyd) - Moel Arthur Hill
Type: Forklaring
Dato / tid: Ukendt
Yderligere kommentarer: Det siges, at der med jævne mellemrum opstår en ujordlig lysbold på bakken for at føre skattejægere til en skattemasse begravet et sted her. Men når gravstedet er nået, vil en voldsom storm springe op og drive de kommende raiders væk. Bakken er en anden udfordrer til Boudiccas sidste hvilested.

Boudicas grav

Placering: NW1 (Greater London) - King's Cross Station, Platform 10
Type: Forklaring
Dato / tid: Stadig til stede?
Yderligere kommentarer: Krigerdronningens sidste hvilested er angiveligt under denne travle platform.

Boudicas grav

Sted: NW3 (Greater London) - Barrow kendt som Boadicea's Grave, Hampstead Heath
Type: Forklaring
Dato / tid: Stadig til stede
Yderligere kommentarer: Lokal folklore siger, at barven er Boudicas sidste hvilested, selvom det bare kunne være en gravhøj fra bronzealderen, der helt tilhører en anden.

Boudiccas grav

Beliggenhed: NW5 (Greater London) - Parliament Hill Fields
Type: Forklaring
Dato / tid: Stadig til stede
Yderligere kommentarer: En høj her er kendt for at være det sidste hvilested for Boudicca.

Sidste kamp

Sted: Ydre London: Stanmore (Greater London) - Stanmore Common
Type: Forklaring
Dato / tid: 61 e.Kr.
Yderligere kommentarer: Den fælles er blevet navngivet som en kandidat til det sidste slag ved Boudica, selvom Jennifer Westwood og Jacqueline Simpson siger, at denne historie kan være blevet til i det nittende århundrede.

Boudicas nederlag?

Beliggenhed: Paulerspury (Northamptonshire) - Cuttle Mill -området
Type: Forklaring
Dato / tid: Webstedet er stadig til stede
Yderligere kommentarer: Dette område er et andet, der påstår at være det sidste slagsted for Boudica efter topografisk analyse baseret på Tacitus, en historiker fra Romerriget.

Boadicea

Beliggenhed: Quidenham (Norfolk) - Lav høj, omkring 300 meter fra kirken, kendt som Viking's Mound
Type: Forklaring
Dato / tid: Stadig til stede?
Yderligere kommentarer: Dette websted er blevet navngivet som en anden konkurrent til dronning Boudiccas sidste hvilested.

Boudicas grav

Beliggenhed: SE15 (Greater London) - Peckham Rye Park & ​​Common, eng ved Strakerr's Road
Type: Forklaring
Dato / tid: Stadig til stede
Yderligere kommentarer: John Chaple har skrevet, at Boudicas sidste kamp fandt sted her, snarere end et mere nordligt sted, og at hun blev begravet tæt på, hvor hun faldt.

Romerske soldater

Sted: Trelawnyd (Clwyd) - Gop Carn
Type: Haunting Manifestation
Dato / tid: 1938
Yderligere kommentarer: Spøgelsesagtige romerske tropper er blevet rapporteret patruljerende på stedet. Nogle mener, at bakken er Boudiccas sidste hvilested, andre siger, at det er en romersk general.


Boudiccas grav

1 Tripzibit 24. maj 2010

Boudicca er en legendarisk skikkelse i britisk historie, berømt som en arketypisk krigerkvinde, der angiveligt legemliggør Britannias ånd med sit motto, ‘Briterne skal aldrig, aldrig være slaver! ’. I 60 󈞩 CE ledede hun sin stamme Iceni og andre keltiske allierede i et blodig oprør mod de besættende romerske styrker, men blev besejret i et sidste slag og nåede hendes ende. Hendes sidste hvilested er aldrig blevet opdaget, men dets placering har udløst forskellige spekulationer. Boudicca (også stavet Boudicca), tidligere kendt som Boadicea og kendt på walisisk som "Buddug" (d. 60 eller 61 e.Kr.) var en dronning af den britiske Iceni -stamme af det, der nu er kendt som East Anglia i England, der ledede et oprør af stammerne mod besættelsesstyrkerne i Romerriget. Hendes navn stammer fra det keltiske ord bouda, der betyder ‘victory ’, og var derfor en jernalderækvivalent til Victoria – en kendsgerning, som viktorianerne gjorde meget ud af, som populariserede hendes legende.

Den mere kendte version af hendes navn, Boadicea, er sandsynligvis resultatet af en forkert transkription af Tacitus, den romerske historiker, der er den primære kilde til hendes historie. (Den anden kilde er Dio Cassius, en lidt senere græsk-romersk forfatter, der sandsynligvis baserede sin version hovedsageligt på Tacitus, selvom han tilføjede nogle ekstra detaljer.) Efter romerne og erobringen af ​​Storbritannien i 43 e.Kr. havde de besat det meste af Sydøst England, men efterlod klientkonger i ansvaret for nogle perifere områder. Dette var almindelig praksis. Det, der normalt fulgte, var, at den pågældende konge ville ville hans rige til romerne ved hans død og sikre en ordnet magtovergang.

I Iceni -området var kong Prasutagus blevet efterladt, da en kundekonge Boudicca var hans kone. Til gengæld for at underkaste sig romersk overherredømme og gøre den romerske kejser til medarving til sit kongerige, fik han lov til at styre og fik endda lånte betydelige summer til at hygge sig med. Da han døde, forlod han imidlertid sit folk i en parlous tilstand. Romersk lov anerkendte ikke arv fra kvinder, og Prasutagus havde kun døtre (selvom romerne sandsynligvis alligevel ville have annekteret hans rige). Oven i dette stod Iceni over for den gæld, han var løbet op på. Følgelig overtog romerne, og Iceni fandt pludselig ud af, at deres nidkært bevogtede friheder var forsvundet. Deres landområder blev nu betragtet som romersk ejendom, og de blev behandlet som slaver.

De blev hensynsløst beskattet, og ifølge Tacitus blev Boudicca og hendes døtre pisket og voldtaget. I 60 e.Kr., mens den romerske guvernør Suetonius Paulinus var væk i det nordlige Wales og kæmpede mod druiderne på Anglesey, rejste Iceni og deres naboer Trinovantes i oprør. Førende dem var den karismatiske og kraftfulde Boudicca, som Dio Cassius beskriver som en skarp figur: Boudicca var høj, forfærdelig at se på og begavet med en stærk stemme. En strøm af knaldrødt hår løb ned til hendes knæ. Hun tog et langt spyd for at forårsage frygt hos alle, der satte øjnene på hende.

Først faldt den britiske horde på den romerske bosættelse Camulodunum (nutidens Colchester) og raserede den til jorden og massakrerede de fleste indbyggere. De besejrede en romersk legion, der blev sendt for at håndtere dem, og i 61 CE bevægede sig mod det nyligt grundlagte romerske handelssted og administrative centrum i Londinium (nutidens London). Da han hørte nyheden om oprøret, havde Suetonius aflyst sin kampagne og marcherede fra Wales til Londinium i fart og rejste hele den romerske vej kendt som Watling Street, ankom der lige før den britiske vært.

Da han indså, at han ikke havde nok mænd til at forsvare byen, trak han sig tilbage og evakuerede så mange som muligt. Briterne brændte Londinium til jorden og massakrerede igen alle, de fandt, før de flyttede ad Watling Street til Verulamium (nutidens St. Albans), hvor de gjorde det samme. I alt siges det, at Boudiccas styrker har dræbt omkring 70 󈞼.000 mennesker.

Suetonius trak sig tilbage op ad Watling Street og samlede hvilke kræfter han kunne, og til sidst mønstrede 10.000 mand. Boudicca ’s horde siges at være 230.000 stærke. Den romerske guvernør vidste, at hvis han tog imod briterne i det åbne land, ville de omgive ham og skære hans styrke i stykker, men han vidste også, at hvis den blev indsat på den rigtige grund, ville overlegen romersk militær taktik ophæve ubalancen mellem kræfter. Tacitus registrerer, at Suetonius ‘ forberedte sig på at afbryde forsinkelsen og kæmpe en kamp. Han valgte en position, som en smal besmittelse nærmede sig, lukket inde bagved af en skov, efter først at have konstateret, at der ikke var en fjendens soldat undtagen foran ham, hvor en åben slette forlængede … ’ Dette er kun beskrivelse af stedet for det, der almindeligvis kaldes Slaget ved Watling Street, på det grundlag, at siden Suetonius trak sig tilbage ad denne romerske vej, ville han sandsynligvis have valgt et sted ikke langt derfra.

Den forfulgte britiske horde, der var sikker på sejr, tegnede vognene med deres kvinder, børn og gamle folk i en kæmpe ring rundt om slagmarken, så de kunne se kampen. Uden at klare romersk taktik, disciplin og rustning, blev den britiske horde besejret og forsøgt at flygte, men blev hindret af deres egne vogne. Romerne slagtede 80.000 af dem i en af ​​de værste enkelte blodbadsdage, der nogensinde er registreret på britisk jord.

Placeringen af ​​Boudicas nederlag er ukendt. De fleste historikere foretrækker et sted i West Midlands, et sted langs den romerske vej nu kendt som Watling Street. Kevin K. Carroll foreslår et sted tæt på High Cross i Leicestershire, ved krydset mellem Watling Street og Fosse Way, hvilket ville have givet Legio II Augusta, baseret i Exeter, mulighed for at mødes med resten af ​​Suetonius styrker, hvis de ikke havde det undlod at gøre det. Manduessedum (Mancetter), nær den moderne by Atherstone i Warwickshire, er også blevet foreslået, ligesom 'The Rampart' nær Messing i Essex, ifølge legenden. For nylig har en opdagelse af romerske artefakter i Kings Norton tæt på Metchley Camp foreslået en anden mulighed.

Tacitus registrerer, at Boudicca overlevede blodbadet, men begik selvmord med gift (ifølge traditionen begik hendes døtre selvmord sammen med hende). Dio Cassius rapporterer, at hun blev syg og døde, formentlig af fortvivlelse over det store nederlag. Tantalizingly registrerer han også, at hun blev begravet med stor ceremoni og rigdom og rejste spørgsmålene: hvor ligger Boudiccas krop, og kan den rige hamstergrav stadig blive genoprettet?

Den måske mest udbredte bit af folklore vedrørende Boudicca's grav er traditionen, at hun er begravet under en af ​​perronerne i King ’s Cross station, en af ​​hovedbanestationerne i London, hvorfra tog kører nordpå ad den travleste jernbanerute i landet. (Det er også nu berømt internationalt for at være, hvor Harry Potter fanger toget til Hogwarts i de populære bøger og film.) Selvom det lyder absurd, er denne legende bemærkelsesværdigt udbredt, selvom det faktiske platformnummer, der er givet, varierer betydeligt. Normalt er det Platform 10. Et tidligere stednavn for King ’s Cross er Battle Bridge, som er givet som en mulig placering for Battle of Watling Street – måske er dette grundlaget for legenden.

Alternativt kan den originale kilde til legenden være Lewis Spence ’s 1937 bog Boadicea – Warrior queen of the Britons. Spence var folklorist og forfatter om okkulte og pseudohistoriske emner som Atlantis og fe -traditioner, og er nu ikke kendt for sin akademiske stringens. Historien fik et ekstra skub i 1988, da en artikel i den britiske avis The Daily Telegraph hævdede, at entreprenører, der arbejdede på platform 10 på King ’s Cross -stationen, havde fundet krigerdronningens skelet frem. Dette er siden blevet citeret bredt, normalt med datoen for opdagelsen angivet som 22. februar.

Arkæologiske opdagelser kan være mere overbevisende end lokal folklore på grund af tilstedeværelsen af ​​materielle beviser. Medmindre arkæologer er så heldige at finde inskriptioner eller andre bestemte oplysninger på samme tid, er tildeling af identiteter til grave eller lig et spørgsmål om ren spekulation. Et godt eksempel er Lady of Birdlip, et skelet gravet op nær Birdlip i Gloucestershire i slutningen af ​​det 19. århundrede. Sammen med knoglerne blev fundet en række forskellige gravvarer, og selve graven blev flankeret af to andre grave. Graven ser ud til at dateres til det 1. århundrede CE, hvilket er det korrekte tidspunkt, og gravgodset –, der omfattede et spejl, brocher, en halskæde og skåle – førte til identifikationen af ​​skelettet som en kvinde. Måske uundgåeligt blev det antydet, at Lady of Birdlip var ingen ringere end Boudicca, begravet med sine to døtre ved siden af ​​hende.

Regionen havde været hjemsted for Dobunni i slutningen af ​​jernalderens tider, og måske var det Boudiccas originale mennesker, som hun var flygtet til efter det katastrofale nederlag et sted i nærheden? Det er spændende nok, at der er fundet uregelmæssige mængder af Dobunnic -valuta i East Anglia, hvilket tyder på en slags forbindelse mellem Dobunni og Iceni. Problemet med denne identifikation, bortset fra den totale mangel på faktiske beviser, er, at når man ser Birdlip -kraniet, antager de fleste eksperter, at det er en mand. Først når konteksten er kendt – dvs. de tilsyneladende ‘feminine ’ gravvarer –, ændres tilskrivninger. Antikvaristen Malcolm Watkins hævder, at Lady of Birdlip kunne have været en shaman/præst, snarere end en krigerdronning.

Dronning Boudiccas sidste hvilested vil sandsynligvis forblive et mysterium, medmindre det konstateres, at de gamle briter hjælpsomt begravede hende med en skriftlig identifikation. I praksis er Boudicca selv et historisk problem. Hun kendes kun fra de to givne romerske kilder og er ikke registreret eller attesteret fra andre kilder. Indtil Tacitus 'arbejde blev genopdaget i middelalderens Europa under renæssancen, syntes britiske historikere og kronikere som Bede eller Geoffrey fra Monmouth at være uvidende om, at hun nogensinde havde eksisteret. I betragtning af en så slank historisk profil er det næppe overraskende, at Boudicca skulle være så vanskelig at finde. Hendes sidste skæbne forbliver omgivet af ukendte. Måske blev hun kremeret, dumpet i en massegrav eller faldt simpelthen et sted i ørkenen.


Livet under romersk styre

I 43 e.Kr., før Boudicca nåede voksenalderen, invaderede romerne Storbritannien, og de fleste af de keltiske stammer blev tvunget til at underkaste sig. Imidlertid tillod romerne to keltiske konger at beholde noget af deres traditionelle magt, da det var normal romersk praksis at tillade kongeriger deres uafhængighed i deres nuværende konges levetid, som derefter ville gå med til at overlade sit rige til Rom i hans testamente.

En af disse konger var Prasutagus, som Boudicca giftede sig med i en alder af 18. Deres bryllup blev fejret i en dag og en nat, og i løbet af denne tid gav de også ofre til de keltiske guder. Sammen havde de to døtre, kaldet Isolda og Siora.

Dronning Boudicca og kong Prasutagus havde to døtre, Isolda og Siora. (Public Domain)

Det var imidlertid ikke en harmonitid for Boudicca og Prasutagus. Den romerske besættelse medførte øget bosættelse, militær tilstedeværelse og forsøg på at undertrykke keltisk religiøs kultur. Der var store økonomiske ændringer, herunder tunge skatter og pengeudlån.

I 60 e.Kr. ændrede livet sig dramatisk for Boudicca med hendes mands død. Da Prasutagus havde regeret som en nominelt uafhængig, men tvunget 'allieret' til Rom, overlod han sit rige i fællesskab til sin kone og døtre og til den romerske kejser. Imidlertid tillod romersk lov kun arv gennem den mandlige linje, så da Prasutagus døde, blev hans forsøg på at bevare hans linje ignoreret, og hans rige blev annekteret, som om det var blevet erobret.

“Rige og husstand blev plyndret som krigspriser …. Høvdingerne i Iceni blev frataget deres familieboer, som om hele landet var blevet overgivet til romerne. Kongens egne slægtninge blev behandlet som slaver. ” - Tacitus

Dronning Boudicca. (VincentPompetti/ DeviantArt)


3) Djengis Khans grav

Djengis Khan var grundlæggeren af ​​det mongolske imperium og regerede indtil han var 65 år i 1227. Hans imperium dækkede det, der nu er Kina, Korea, Central- og Sydvestasien og store områder i Østeuropa. Han grundlagde imperiet gennem militære kampagner, der ofte resulterede i enorme massakrer på oprindelige folk og styrede dem gennem frygt og terror.

Lidt er kendt om hans død. Der findes forskellige historier som sygdom, at blive dræbt af Xia -tropper, dø af slagskader og falde af hans hest. En senere historie opstod om, at han blev myrdet af en lokal prinsesse efter at have taget hende som sit trofæ. Desværre kan årsagen ikke bekræftes på grund af det faktum, at han efter mongolsk tradition blev begravet i en umærket grav, mens mændene eskorterede hans lig og dræbte nogen på deres vej, der kunne afsløre placeringen af ​​Great Khan's grav.


Hent nu!

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Richard III -begravelseskonflikten og 5 ukendte kongelige gravsteder

Kontroversen omkring begravelsen af ​​Richard III, hvis rester blev opdaget sidste år på en parkeringsplads i Leicester, fortsætter i denne uge, da femten overlevende efterkommere af King ’s slægtninge truer med retssager, hvis kongen ikke bliver begravet i katedralen i York Minster. University of Leicester reagerede på medlemmerne af Plantagenet Alliance den 26. marts og oplyste i en pressemeddelelse, “Planen for geninterest i Leicester Cathedral var klart angivet og utvetydig ved projektets start og annonceret i en erklæring om Fredag ​​den 24. august 2012. Dette var før udgravningen startede. ”

Leicester Cathedral har i de seneste uger været udsat for kritik for at planlægge en stenstik som et mindesmærke for Richard III i stedet for den detaljerede grav, der er designet af medlemmer af Richard III -samfundet. Arten af ​​den planlagte begravelsesgudstjeneste er også blevet undersøgt, fordi Leicester Cathedral er et kirkeligt sted for tilbedelse i England, men kongen regerede før den protestantiske reformation og ville have tilbedt i henhold til romersk -katolske ritualer.

Den russiske kejserlige familie i 1913

Debatten om begravelsen af ​​Richard III kan virke unik, men den har meget tilfælles med de kontroverser, der omgav udgravning og begravelse af kejser Nicholas II i Rusland, hans kone Alexandra, deres fem børn og fire af deres tjenere i løbet af 1990'erne. Ruslands kejserlige hovedstad, Skt. Petersborg, dens nuværende hovedstad, Moskva, og placeringen af ​​familiemordet i 1918, var Jekaterinburg alle mulige steder for genbegravelse af resterne. Rusland ’s sidste kejserlige familie blev i sidste ende begravet i Peter og Paul -katedralen i Skt. Petersborg, som er begravelsesstedet for alle undtagen to russiske herskere siden Peter den Stores regeringstid.

Richard III ’s begravelse kan skabe præcedenser for opdagelsen og begravelsen af ​​andre tabte kongelige rester på de britiske øer. Der er mange fremtrædende kongelige personer, der stadig ikke har en kendt grav af mange årsager, herunder opløsningen af ​​de engelske klostre under Henrik VIII's regeringstid, skændsel på dødstidspunktet eller endda rygter om overlevelse på tidspunktet for den officielle begravelse.

Portræt af prinserne i tårnet, venlige Edward V og Richard, hertug af York af Paul Delaroche

Her er 5 eksempler på ukendte eller anfægtede kongelige gravsteder på de britiske øer:

1) Fyrsterne i Tårnet Den afsatte kong Edward V og hans bror, Richard, hertug af York forsvandt i 1483, efter at deres onkel, Richard III, greb tronen og begrænsede dem til Tower of London. I 1674 blev en kasse med skeletter af to børn opdaget nær Det Hvide Tårn. Kong Charles II begravede resterne i en urne i Westminster Abbey. Resterne blev sidst analyseret i 1933, før fremkomsten af ​​DNA -analyse, hvilket gjorde det umuligt at bekræfte, at resterne faktisk var af tårnprinserne. Opdagelsen af ​​Richard III i 2012 genoplivede populær interesse for moderne analyse af knoglerne i urnen, men både Westminster Abbey og dronning Elizabeth II har nægtet tilladelse til yderligere undersøgelse af de påståede rester af prinserne i tårnet. Yderligere læsning: Alison Weir, Fyrsterne i tårnet

Statue af Alfred den Store i Winchester

2) Alfred den Store Den berømte saksiske konge døde i 899 efter en lang og smertefuld sygdom, der kan have været Crohns sygdom. Alfred, hans kone Ealhswith og søn, Edward den ældre blev oprindeligt begravet i Old Minster i Winchester Cathedral og flyttede derefter til New Minster. Da munkene flyttede til Hyde Abbey i 1110, tog de de kongelige rester med sig, hvor de blev, indtil klosteret blev revet efter ordre fra kong Henry VIII i 1539. På det tidspunkt blev et fængsel bygget på Hyde Abbey -stedet i det attende århundrede gik knoglerne tabt. Stenkister med navne på Alfred, Ealhswith og Edward blev opdaget for nylig, men de var tomme, hvilket tyder på, at munkene flyttede de kongelige rester før klostrenes opløsning. In 2013, archaeologists exhumed an unmarked grave in St Bartholomew’s Church, Winchester. Researchers from the University of Winchester are currently seeking permission to analyze these remains, which may be those of the long lost Alfred the Great. Further Reading: Benjamin Mekkle, The White Horse King: The Life of Alfred the Great

“Boadicea Haranguing the Britons” by John Opie

3) Boudicca, Queen of the Iceni The Celtic Queen fought her last battle against the Romans in 60 or 61 AD and is believed to have committed suicide following her defeat to avoid being paraded in a Roman Triumph. The precise location of the battle and the Queen’s final resting place in unknown. King’s Cross railway station in London is located on the site of a village known as “Battle Bridge” near the site of an ancient crossing of the River Fleet. According to legend, Boudicca fought her last stand on this location and was buried in the area. There is speculation that Boudicca’s tomb may be located under platform 8,9 or 10 at King’s Cross railway station. There is not currently sufficient evidence to merit an excavation of King’s Cross station. Further Reading: Marguerite Johnson, Boudicca

4) Simon de Montfort King Henry III’s brother-in-law, Simon de Montfort was killed at the Battle of Evesham during the Second Barons War in 1265. Montfort seized control of the government after defeating Henry III at the Battle of Lewes in 1264 and taking the King and his heir prisoner. During his year in power, Montfort pioneered representative government, summoning elected representatives from the counties for a 1265 parliament at Westminster. Henry III’s son, the future Edward I, escaped in 1265 and raised a 10,000 man army that defeated Montfort’s 5,000 supporters at Evesham. Monfort’s remains were mutilated on the battlefield and displayed in various regions of England before being buried at Evesham Abbey. Henry III was dismayed by the number of pilgrims who visited Montfort’s grave and ordered the remains to be removed to an unknown location on the Abbey grounds. Evesham Abbey was almost entirely destroyed in 1540, during the dissolution of the monasteries. Further Reading: J. R. Maddicott, Simon de Montfort

Edward II receiving the English Crown

5) Edward II King Edward II was deposed by his wife, Queen Isabella and her lover, Roger Mortimer in 1327. The former King was imprisoned in Berkeley Castle while Isabella and Mortimer governed on behalf of his young son, Edward III. There were rumours that Edward II was quietly smothered in prison later in 1327. Isabella held a public funeral for her late husband in Gloucester Cathedral that same year. In his 1592 play Edward II, Christopher Marlowe popularized a more brutal legend about the King’s passing by having Mortimer’s agents come onstage with a table and a red hot poker and one of murderers declare, “So, lay the table down, and stamp on it/But not too hard lest that you bruise his body.”

Despite the funeral and the legends surrounding Edward II’s manner of death, Edward III’s biographer, Ian Mortimer has discovered evidence that the deposed King may have escaped from Berkeley Castle and lived out his natural life in retirement in Italy. In this hypothesis, Edward II exchanged clothing with a servant who closely resembled him and left Berkeley Castle for Ireland and, ultimately, Italy. The unlucky servant was murdered and buried in Gloucester Cathedral. Mortimer’s theory has been contested by other scholars of Edward II’s life and death. For further Reading on Edward II’s reign, see Seymour Phillips, Edward II


Boadicea and Her Daughters Statue, Westminster

HERITAGE RATING:

HERITAGE HIGHLIGHTS: A London icon

At the western end of Westminster Bridge, a stone's throw from Big Ben and the Palace of Westminster, stands one of London's icons, a statue of Queen Boadicea on her war chariot, her daughters crouched beside her, one hand gripping a spear, the other outstretched in a regal gesture while her horses rear their forelegs in the air. There are no reins controlling the horses. Thousands of tourists pass the statue each day - and most ignore it completely.

Boadicea/Boudicca

Boudicca (known to the Romans as Boadicea) was the queen of the Iceni tribe, a native British tribe occupying what is now East Anglia. Very little is known about her life, and even those 'facts' are open to debate. Much of what we think we know comes from accounts written by Roman historians, who had an axe to grind.

When the Romans conquered Britain in AD 43 the Iceni, under their king Prasagustus, were given client kingdom status. That meant that the Iceni were subservient to Rome but not directly part of the Roman empire. As part of the agreement, Prasagustus named the Emperor of Rome joint heir to his kingdom along with his wife and daughters.

Unfortunately, Roman law did not allow inheritance through the female line, so when Prasagustus died in AD 60 Rome claimed the Iceni kingdom. They seized tribal property and the Iceni were treated like slaves. According to an account by the Roman historian Tacitus, when Boudicca had the temerity to complain of this treatment she was flogged and her daughters were raped.

Boudicca raised her people in revolt against the might of Rome. With the aid of the neighbouring tribe of the Trinovantes she sacked Camulodunum (the Roman settlement that became Colchester), destroyed St Albans and burned London to the ground.

Roman historians claim that up to 80,000 people died in these raids. The Iceni offered no quarter and treated their enemies brutally. The Roman Governor Suetonius Paullinus realised that he was outnumbered and retreated from London to gather his forces. As a result, there were no Roman troops left to withstand Boudicca and her supporters, estimated to number some 200,000 men.

Suetonius Paullinus gathered 10,000 men and took up a position in a narrow gorge somewhere in the English Midlands, possibly near High Cross in Leicestershire. The location was a masterful choice, for the narrow defile prevented Boudicca from bringing her vastly superior forces into play.

The result was a rout the Romans lost an estimated 800 men while Boudicca's Celtic army lost 80,000. We can take those numbers with a grain of salt, but the end result was that the Iceni and their warrior queen were defeated, and Britain was secured for the Romans.

What became of Boudicca?

Accounts differ. One version says that when she realised the battle was lost she poisoned herself and her daughters rather than let them be captured by the Romans. Another account says that she was mortally wounded in the fighting and was given a lavish burial after the conflict was over. The location of her grave is not recorded, though one improbable legend suggests that she lies between platforms 9 and 10 at Kings Cros Station and her ghost haunts the underground passages beneath the station.

Accounts of her life and battles were published sporadically during the medieval and Tudor period, but it was not until the Victorian period that Boadicea, as she was then known, became a national symbol. And one man was responsible Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Queen Victoria's Poet Laureate. Tennyson's poem 'Boädicéa', written in 1859 and first published in 1864, brought the Iceni queen alive to a new audience.

'Up my Britons, on my chariot, on my chargers, trample them under us'

Tennyson's Boadicea was a bloodthirsty warrior queen, but more importantly, she was a symbol of Britishness at a time when Britain was ruled by a woman. The parallels are obvious, and Boadicea became a symbol of Britain and British independence just as Victoria became a symbol of the ever-expanding British Empire.

Historie

The sculpture was designed by one of Victorian England's greatest sculptors, Thomas Thornycroft, the father of William Hamo Thornycroft, who grew to become even more famous than his father. The elder Thornycroft started on the Boadicea sculpture in 1856 and took his time creating what he wanted, assisted at times by his son William. He exhibited the head of Boadicea in the mid-1860s, but the sculpture was not completed until just before Thornycroft's death in 1885. And then it was discovered that there was no money available to cast Thornycroft's model.

In 1894 London County Council decided to excavate an earthwork on Parliament Hill known as 'Boadicea's Grave'. Tradition suggested that this earthwork was, in fact, a tumulus, or burial mound, and that it marked Boudicca's final resting place. Unfortunately, the excavations proved to the satisfaction of the Society of Antiquaries that the earthwork contained no burials and had nothing to do with Boudicca.

Nevertheless, Thornycroft's son, John Isaac Thornycroft suggested that it would make a suitable location to erect his father's sculpture. But yet again, no public money was available to cast the sculpture in bronze, so nothing was done.

A committee was created to launch a public appeal for £6,000 to cast the model. The necessary amount was raised by 1898 and the statue was cast at the JW Singer & Sons Foundry in Frome, Somerset, the same foundry responsible for the lions in Trafalgar Square. And it cost just £2,000 rather than the anticipated £6,000. And yet one final obstacle remained there was no location available to erect the sculpture. It was not until 1902, 17 years after Thomas Thornycroft's death, that a location at Westminster Pier was found and the statue was erected on a granite plinth created by Thomas Graham Jackson.

The Statue

Prince Albert and Queen Victoria were closely involved in the sculpture and the likeness of Boadicea is supposed to bear a passing resemblance to the young queen. Prince Albert wanted the sculpture to adorn the central arch of Decimus Burton's grand entrance to Hyde Park and he asked Thornycroft to create 'a throne upon wheels'.

Prince Albert loaned Thornycroft horses from the royal stables to act as models for Boadicea's horse. Thornycroft used some artistic license, for Boadicea's horses are thoroughbreds, whereas Boudicca probably used smaller horses the size of ponies.

Her chariot is also historically inaccurate it is based on Roman chariots rather than the native British ones. It is highly decorated, with a sunburst on the base of the shaft and small sunbursts decorating each horse's chest. Elongated knives protrude from the chariot's wheels. These curved blades would have been used to cut down enemy soldiers in an all-out charge. The horses are angled outwardly, and are not symmetrical.

The plinth on which the statue stands was originally plain, but in 1903 inscriptions were added on three sides. On the front of the plinth is the inscription 'Boadicea, Boudicca, Queen of the Iceni who died AD 61 after leading her people against the Roman invader'.

On the right, facing the River Thames, are the words 'Regions Caesar never knew, thy posterity shall sway'. This is a quote from Cowper's poem 'Boadicea, an ode', written in 1782.

On the side facing the road is the inscription 'This statue by Thomas Thornycroft was presented to London by his son Sir John Isaac Thornycroft CE and placed here by the London County Council, AD 1902'.

It does seem rather jarring to see this wonderfully evocative statue, symbolic of British independence, hemmed in by a fast-food kiosk and a souvenir stand, and largely ignored by the throngs of tourists that pass by almost beneath her chariot's wheels.

Er på vej

It is incredibly easy to find the statue. Westminster underground station is a few steps away. From the station take the embankment exit. The steps up to the Embankment bring out directly beside the monument.

De fleste fotos er tilgængelige for licensering. Kontakt venligst Britain Express billedbibliotek.

About Boadicea and Her Daughters Statue, Westminster
Address: Westminster Bridge, Victoria Embankment, London, Greater London, England, SW1A 2JH
Attraction Type: Landmark - Statue
Location: A few steps from Westminster underground station at the end of Westminster Bridge. Take the Embankment exit from the underground station.
Placeringskort
OS: TQ303797
Fotokredit: David Ross og Britain Express
Nearest station: Westminster - 0.1 miles (straight line) - Zone: 1

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Er Celtic Birdlip Grave det sidste hvilested for dronning Boudicca? - Historie

In the 1880s, residents living near the ancient Egyptian city of Amarna discovered a large multichambered rock-cut tomb. It was one of many such tombs at Amarna, but its impressive size distinguished it from the others. Unfortunately, the tomb, called Amarna 26, has been badly damaged by looters, weather, and time, and many of the most significant artifacts were removed at some point, either in antiquity or more recently. Relatively little of the tomb’s fragile decoration is intact. Nevertheless, enough inscribed artifacts do survive—including more than 200 shabti figurines, an alabaster chest, and two large granite sarcophagi—that archaeologists are reasonably certain the tomb, also called the Royal Tomb, belonged to the 18th Dynasty pharaoh Akhenaten and his daughter Meketaten.

But the Royal Tomb also contains a third, unfinished chamber whose royal resident is unknown.Could it perhaps be the tomb of Akhenaten’s wife, Nefertiti? Egyptologist Marc Gabolde of Paul Valéry University, who has been searching for Nefertiti’s tomb, thinks so. “I now believe that Nefertiti died a few months before Akhenaten and was buried at Amarna, despite the fact that her suite in the Royal Tomb was unfinished.” But at least one other scholar is less certain. “I do not think it is likely that she was buried in Amarna,” says archaeologist Barry Kemp of the University of Cambridge, director of the Amarna Project. “Or, at least, nothing found in the tomb suggests that it had housed burial equipment for her,” Kemp adds. “She could have been buried at Thebes, or on the now utterly robbed necropolis at Gurob or she could have been taken back to her home city of Akhmim and buried in the ancestral cemetery there. We may never know.”

Alexander the Great, King of Macedon

When St. John Chrysostom visited Alexandria in A.D. 400, he asked to see Alexander’s burial place, adding, “His tomb even his own people know not.” It is a question that continues to be asked now, 1,613 years later. Alexander died in the Mesopotamian capital of Babylon in 323 B.C., perhaps from poisoning, malaria, typhoid, West Nile fever, or grief over the death of his best friend, Hephaestion. For two years, Alexander’s mummified remains, housed in a golden sarcophagus, lay in state, a pawn in the game of royal succession. Finally, it was decided that Alexander would be buried in Greece at Aegae, the first capital of the Macedonian kings. But according to ancient sources, his hearse was hijacked near Damascus and the corpse taken to Egypt, first to Memphis, and, some time between 298 and 283 B.C., to Alexandria, the city he had founded and named after himself.

There, Alexander was interred in at least two tombs in different locations, the more notable of which ancient authors, such as Strabo, Plutarch, and Pausanias, identify as a mausoleum called the Soma, meaning “body” in ancient Greek. The Soma was repeatedly robbed—the golden sarcophagus was melted down and replaced with one made of glass or crystal. Even Cleopatra took gold from the tomb to pay for her war against Octavian (soon to be the emperor Augustus). There were subsequent visits to the tomb by numerous Roman emperors and then, beginning in A.D. 360, a series of events that included warfare, riots, an earthquake, and a tsunami, threatened—or perhaps destroyed—the tomb by the time of Chrysostom’s visit. From that point on, Alexander’s tomb can be considered lost. And despite centuries of relentless searching by archaeologists, authors, and amateurs, it remains so.

Alfred, King of Wessex

He was the first king of “all the English” and the only English king to be called “the Great.” When Alfred died at the age of 50, after a remarkable reign, he was laid to rest at Winchester’s Old Minster. Just two years later, Alfred’s son Edward began construction of a new minster next to the old one, and his father’s remains were moved to a new mausoleum there in 903. The king was only to rest there for two centuries. In 1110, his body was transported to the new Hyde Abbey, along with those of his wife and son, just outside the city walls. But this too was not to be Alfred’s final resting place. At some point after the dissolution of the monasteries by Henry VIII, the monarch’s tomb may have been ransacked and the bones moved again, this time to a simple grave at St. Bartholomew’s Parish Church, which had been built partly on the site of the destroyed abbey.

There have been periodic attempts to find Alfred’s tomb for more than 100 years: The first of these was led by a local antiquary in the nineteenth century, and the second during an excavation commissioned by the Winchester City Council more than a decade ago. No tombs, and only one human bone, which turned out to be from a female, were found during either effort. And there are those who believe the king’s bones were never reburied, but rather scattered by eighteenth-century construction work on the site of the abbey. There is an increased fascination with the remains of English monarchs after the recent identification of Richard III, so last March the diocese of St. Bartholomew commissioned three archaeologists to excavate an unmarked grave in the churchyard, thought perhaps to be the location of Alfred’s last burial, in order to protect the remains from possible vandalism or theft. For now the exhumed bones lie in a secure location, awaiting further study—and the final resting place of England’s first and greatest king remains uncertain.

Boudicca, Queen of the Iceni

Though her moment in time was short, Boudicca is a towering figure of British history. As the leader of a large popular uprising in A.D. 60, she has been lauded for her defense of Britain from excessive taxation, property loss, and enslavement under the Roman Empire. And the ancient Roman historian Cassius Dio’s description of the Celtic queen has captured imaginations for millennia:

In stature she was very tall, in appearance most terrifying, in the glance of her eye most fierce, and her voice was harsh a great mass of the tawniest hair fell to her hips, around her neck was a large golden necklace and she wore a tunic of many colors.

It is thought that, fearing capture and torture, Boudicca fled home to her kingdom in southern Britain after the final battle, during which her forces were massacred. Although Dio describes a lavish burial, the locations of neither her death nor the battle are known.

Fantastic and unsubstantiated rumors profess that the queen is buried under platform 8, 9, or 10 at London’s King’s Cross railway station, yet no traces of her have been found in this or any other location. According to Mike Heyworth, director of the Council for British Archaeology, even if remains are found that might be Boudicca’s, it would be challenging to be certain because of the lack of physical evidence that would prove it conclusively. Further, says archaeologist Richard Hingley of Durham University, if the queen died in battle, the remains would probably have been cleared away along with weapons and debris, leaving little left to find. “It is unlikely that Boudicca would have had a burial monument,” says Hingley. “Most Iron Age people in this region were disposed of in ways that do not show up in the archaeological record.” However, he adds, that has not stopped “a variety of people actively looking for the site.”

Genghis Khan, Founder of the Mongol Empire

By the time he died in 1227, Genghis Khan had gone from being cast out of a minor Mongol tribe to ruling the largest contiguous empire in history, stretching from China to the Caspian Sea. Today, Genghis Khan is still worshipped as a national hero of Mongolia, but the location of his burial is shrouded in mystery. Chinese and Persian historical sources suggest Genghis died during a campaign in China, possibly falling off his horse during a hunt, and that his sons took his body back to Mongolia for burial. A number of accounts agree that his coffin was placed in a pit and that the ground above was restored to its original appearance to conceal it. According to one source, 10,000 horsemen trampled the ground above it to make it even. Beginning in the 1960s, several expeditions have searched for the grave, but without success. Today, many scholars agree that Genghis was likely interred somewhere in the Khentii mountain range of northeastern Mongolia, not far from his birthplace.

Now an international effort of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, the University of California, San Diego, (UCSD) and the National Geographic Society is using remote-sensing techniques to search for the tomb. The team hopes finding it will close a gap in the historical record for Mongolians and the world at large. “He transformed the planet,” says UCSD engineer Albert Lin, who helped start the project in 2009. “But there isn’t even a painting of him by his own people. There’s a missing physical element to his legacy, and just finding the location of his burial would give Mongolians an important link to him.” The Mongolian government could announce the team’s preliminary findings later this year.


Celtic Burial and Funeral Rites

Portal Tomb (source: Wikimedia Commons)

A few weeks ago, a college student from Spain contacted me asking for information on Celtic funeral/burial rites. This student was in luck because I had researched this for a scene that was supposed to be in book 2, but has now been put aside for a future separate book. As with the last student that contacted me, I realized I’ve never done a blog post on this topic, so here we go.

As usual, my research focuses on Britain, but I will include what I’ve found for Ireland and Scotland, too. (Someday, I need to do more research on those two countries.)

Celtic Views of Death and Dying
For a warrior people, it’s not surprising that to the Celts, the most honorable death was to die in battle. Depending on the time period and which tribe you were in, you might be buried, cremated or have your ashes buried. In pre-Christian times, many graves contained items needed for the next world, from chariots and weapons to food, wine, money and clothing. There is some evidence that the Celts practiced human sacrifice, but not likely on a large scale.

The Celts believed in reincarnation. Some sources say they only believed you could come back in human form, but others argue you could be reincarnated as an animal or plant, too. Mythology seems to support this later theory (look at the many incarnations of Taliesin). In mythology, the Cauldron of Rebirth was able to revive the dead. Interestingly, some sources day they believed in after death judgment of your actions, while others say no such retribution existed in the Celtic belief system. Pre-Christian Celts believed in an after-death Otherworld (Annwn in Welsh mythology), a resting place between incarnations.It was a heaven-like paradise. There, the dead wore gowns of silver and gold and gold bands around their waists and necks and jeweled circlets on their brows.

Pre-Roman Britain
According to the poems of Homer and the accounts of Caesar, on the Continent the Celtic dead were burned on a pyre. Sheep and oxen were slain and their fat was placed on the body, their carcasses around it. Jars of honey and oil placed around the body. Beloved horses, dogs and slaves were slain, their bodies piled on top. The whole was lit on fire. The dead were addressed by name and people wailed in mourning. When the fire was extinguished with wine, the “whitened bones” were taken out and laid in a gold urn. The urn was then buried with a mound over it. There is no record of this practice in the myths of Britain or Ireland.

However, we do know that a body was washed and wrapped in a death shirt, called an Eslene. The body was laid out with burning candles or rushes around it in the home for seven days. People would keen over the dead and/or praise him or her. Three days after the body was laid out, a feast/games was held in his/her honor. The body had a bowl placed on the chest into which people would place food and coins for the dead to use in the next life.

On the morning of burial, a Druid came with a rod called a “fey” or “fe.” It was made of Aspen with Ogham letters and symbols carved into it. It was used to measure the body to ensure a proper fit within the final resting place. It was said that if you looked at the fey, your death was unavoidable because it had already measured you. Some sources also say the Druid would whisper to the dead person, giving him/her instructions on how to get to the next world. If the person was murdered or otherwise died without the presence of a Druid, they would still try to speak to the spirit to guide it.

Burial customs varied by tribe. Animal sacrifice and grave goods are both mentioned in British and Irish mythology and supported by archaeological finds, so it’s likely this was at one time part of the ritual.

Roman Storbritannien
I believe it’s a safe assumption that under Roman rule, the Britons adopted Roman burial practices. Roman graveyards were usually located outside of the city. Romans practiced inhumation (burial) rather than cremation. They set up memorial stones (kind of like our headstones) to mark the resting place of the dead, but these weren’t always done of out love sometimes they served to warn passersby of plague or other ways they could die in a nearby town. (Pleasant thought, isn’t it?)

These memorial markers usually followed a prescribed pattern: They always began by addressing the god of the shades/death, then talked about the life of the dead person, and ended with the name of the person to commissioned the marker. Some were very elaborate in their stories of the dead, while others were simple memorials.

The Romans are thought to have been a major influence on Christianity coming to Britain. There is some evidence of continuity of burial sites from pagan to Christian. This may have been due to paying respect to ancestors or the areas may simply have been well-known. By the fourth century, many pagan and Christian burials were found side by side in Britain.

Post-Roman Britain
With the fall of the Roman Empire, burial practices took on what we would come to see as a distinctly Christian tone. Cemeteries were allowed inside of cities, and became a communal meeting place, with churches springing up in their midst, as we think of today. Some churchyards had special areas in the northern corner reserved for murder victims and soldiers who died in battle, none of whom would have received last rites.

Graves were oriented west-east. West was the direction of the Otherworld and also Christians believed that this positioning allowed the dead to face Christ when he raised them on Resurrection Day. Single person burials were the norm, with the dead person’s head facing west. Sometimes a mother and child were buried together, but mass graves were not common. Grave goods were not found during this time. Bodies c ould have been laid in the bare earth, in a stone coffin or a hollowed out log, but coffins were rare.

I can’t find any evidence that details a Celtic Christian funeral rite (if you know of any sources, please tell me!), but from context it appears they were very similar to what takes place in the Roman Catholic religion today, which isn’t too surprising given how little liturgy has changed in its basic components within the Catholic Church.

Irland
There was a very early (pre-history) practice of piling stones over the dead person’s body rather than digging a grave. Later in time, the Irish buried their dead in three types of tombs:

  1. Portal tomb: A number of upright stones covered by one or two capstones and sometimes placed in a long or round mound.
  2. Passage tomb: Round mounds with burial chambers in the center which were reached by a passage leading in from the edge of the mound.
  3. Wedge tombs (found in area of Munster): A type of chamber tomb where the chamber narrows at one end.

These could hold either bodies or ashes from cremation. When the body was buried, the arms of the dead person could be loose at the sides or placed over the pubic area. The Irish did not use a burial shroud until around the 700s.

Skotland
Compared to other areas, there is less evidence of Pictish burial customs. There are four main types of graves:

  1. Cairns – Burial mounds
  2. Cists – Stone lined burial chambers
  3. Barrows – Mounds of earth or stone built up over bodies
  4. Platform graves – A flat, wide circular mound (sometimes surrounded by a ditch).

The Picts buried their dead in a supine position. Scottish graves have been found with scattered small white stones (quartz), believed to ease the passage to the afterlife.


Se videoen: Watling Street 60 AD - Boudicas Revolt DOCUMENTARY (Juli 2022).


Kommentarer:

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