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Franja Partisan Hospital

Franja Partisan Hospital


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Franja Partisan Hospital var et hemmeligt hospital fra anden verdenskrig gemt i det vilde og fantastiske landskab i Pasica -kløften, Vest -Slovenien. Konstrueret af den slovenske modstandsbevægelse mellem 1943 og 1945 kunne Franja Partisan Hospital indeholde 120 patienter ad gangen i sine 13 kamuflerede bygninger.

Tallene er forskellige, men mellem 500 og 1.000 soldater blev behandlet på Franja Partisan Hospital, og på trods af inderlige forsøg fra fjendtlige styrker blev det aldrig opdaget. De bygninger, der ses der i dag, er rekonstruktioner, da originalerne blev ødelagt af oversvømmelser.

Historien om Franja Partisan Hospital

Hospitalet blev bygget dybt inde i tysk-besatte Europa, få timer fra Østrig og de centrale dele af Det Tredje Rige. Bygningen startede i slutningen af ​​1943 og gennemgik løbende forbedringer indtil 1945.

Det blev grundlagt og bygget af Viktor Volčjak, men opkaldt efter dets administrerede og læge, Franja Bojc Bidovec, der begyndte at arbejde der i 1944.

Hospitalet var yderst veludstyret til en hemmelig, partipolitisk operation og var designet til at behandle så mange som 120 patienter ad gangen og oplevede næsten hele ti gange det under besættelsen.

Størstedelen af ​​patienterne der var sårede anti-nazistiske modstandsfolk, der ellers ville blive anholdt på et normalt hospital. Blandt patienterne var der imidlertid en såret tysk fjendtlig soldat, der efter at være kommet sig, blev på hospitalet som medarbejder.

Tysk militær aktivitet var hyppig i den generelle region under hele operationen af ​​hospitalet. Som et resultat var hospitalets indgang skjult i skoven og var kun tilgængelig med broer, der kunne trækkes tilbage, hvis fjenden var i området.

Dens placering var så hemmelig, at patienter blev bind for øjnene, mens de blev transporteret dertil. Det blev også beskyttet af minefelter og reder af maskingeværer og blev skjult af de mange træer og camouflerede bygninger, der var afgørende for dets hemmeligholdelse, når de stod over for fjendtlige luftrekognitionsmissioner.

Det blev aldrig opdaget og var i brug indtil maj 1945 og blev derefter en del af Cerkno -museet i 1963.

I 2007 blev den hårdt beskadiget af en oversvømmelse efter kraftige og voldsomme regnskyl. Det blev derfor rekonstrueret og fuldstændig genopbygget i 2010 og er genåbnet for besøgende. Det er i øjeblikket en kandidat til at blive et UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Franja Partisan Hospital i dag

I dag kan besøgende nyde at gå rundt i de rekonstruerede bygninger på Franja Partisan Hospital. Lagerhuset er den eneste originale resterende bygning.

Der er skiltning på engelsk samt en overflod af naturlig skønhed, herunder vandfald, blandt det fantastiske landskab.

At komme til Franja Partisan Hospital

Fra Cerkno er hospitalet 5 minutters kørsel via Cerkno- Novaki- Črni Vrh. Der er også en række almindelige busser, der tager omkring 20 minutter fra Cerkno. Til fods er det en stigning op ad bakke via Cerkno- Novaki- Črni Vrh og tager omkring en time.


Franja Partisan Hospital

Det Franja Partisan Hospital (Slovensk sprog: Partizanska bolnica Franja ) var et hemmeligt andet verdenskrigshospital i Dolenji Novaki nær Cerkno i det vestlige Slovenien. Det blev drevet af de slovenske partisaner fra december 1943 til krigens slutning som en del af en bredt organiseret modstandsbevægelse mod de fascistiske og nazistiske besættelsesstyrker. De sårede, der blev behandlet der, var soldater fra både de allierede magter og aksemagterne. Selvom de besættende Wehrmacht -styrker lancerede flere forsøg på at finde hospitalet, blev det aldrig opdaget. I dag eksisterer det som et museum. Det er blevet beskyttet som et kulturelt monument af national betydning.


Det hemmelige partisanhospital holdt skjult for nazisterne

Ved slutningen af ​​Anden Verdenskrig var der 14 træbygninger omfattende Franja Partisan Hospital i en næsten uoverkommelig del af Slovenien. På hospitalet blev soldater fra begge sider behandlet. En anden fantastisk kendsgerning om dette sted er, at mange af lægerne var kvinder- noget du aldrig ville se på hærens eller kommunale hospitaler i Europa. Denne skjulte operation blev næsten opdaget af nazisterne- der vidste om dens eksistens, men ikke den nøjagtige placering af hospitalet. Til sidst forblev hospitalet i drift indtil krigens slutning.

Hospitalet ligger i Dolenji Novaki nær Cerkno og var i drift fra december 1943 til maj 1945. Slovenien blev trisektioneret af de fascistiske aksemagter i Italien Ungarn, og Tyskland havde besat Slovenien og naboregioner begyndende i april 1941.

Fra det tidspunkt var der kun få, der var sikre i Slovenien. Præster blev sendt til koncentrationslejre, titusinder af slovenere blev deporteret for at give plads til, at tyskere kunne bo der, og det lille slovenske jødiske samfund blev næsten udslettet. I alt blev omkring 97.500 slovenere dræbt på grund af krigen, omkring 6,5% af landets befolkning.

De fascistiske regimer, der havde greb om landet, ville have lukket hospitalet på et øjeblik, hvis de havde vidst, hvor hospitalet befandt sig. Anlægget var ulovligt og var endnu farligere i betragtning af, at personalet der også betjente sårede fra alle sider, både soldater og civile.

Hospitalet havde en røntgenapparat, en operationsstue, et køkken, et arbejdshus, køjer, handicapvenlige områder, et vaskeri og mange andre bekvemmeligheder, der næppe synes mulige at bygge et hemmeligt hospital under en krig. Modstand i Europa var ikke sjælden, men faciliteter som disse var. Det krævede støtte fra hele samfundet at få en så stor hemmelighed frem.

De sårede blev bind for øjnene og ført til hospitalet til behandling, ofte om natten for at forhindre patienterne i senere at afsløre placeringen af ​​hospitalet. Nazisterne var tæt på at finde hospitalet to gange, men i sidste ende gjorde det ikke. Hvis det værste var kommet til at passere partisaner med maskingeværer skjult fra klippehulens udsigtspunkter, ville det have handlet hurtigt.

Efter krigens afslutning glemte samfundet aldrig det arbejde, der blev udført der. Milan Bidovec, søn af hospitalets leder, hovedlæge og navnebror, mindede år senere om, at uanset hvor familien gik hen, jublede folk over hans mor, en kendsgerning, der undrede barnet, der var uvidende om sin mors rolle under krigen .

Omkring 1000 mennesker blev behandlet på hospitalet i den tid, det var åbent. Af de fjendtlige soldater, der blev behandlet der, var kun en tysk, og han endte med at slutte sig til personalet og blive der i resten af ​​krigen.

Franja Hospital var et af omkring 20 sådanne hospitaler i hele Slovenien, selvom ingen var så veludstyrede. Der var utallige partisangrupper i hele Europa på dette tidspunkt, der kæmpede bag kulisserne for at overvinde aksemagterne. Men hospitalet på Dolenji Novaki er et af de få faciliteter, der stadig står i dag og muligvis det bedst udstyrede partisanhospital under krig. Grunden åbnede som et museum i 1963, men det ødelagde næsten fuldstændigt under en oversvømmelse i 2007. Siden er det blevet genopbygget, og i 2010 blev stedet åbnet igen for besøgende.


Historie når det er bedst

Du bør besøge, og en tour guide anbefales for hele historien bag scenen. Stien er godt vedligeholdt, parkering er gratis og 500 meter fra hospitalet. WC er gratis i baren på parkeringspladsen.

Vi elskede dette sted, både forældre og børn (13,18). Turen dertil var smuk. Turen op ad kløften med de skriftlige forklaringer er spændende. Selve hospitalet er en perle, interessante og koncise forklaringer i hver hytte med personlige anekdoter, der gør det levende. Det er et fascinerende kig ind i historien præsenteret på en autentisk måde. Jeg anbefaler stærkt at besøge.

Et must see for alle. Her vil du se i hvilken svær tilstand slovenske partisaner helbredte patienter under 2. verdenskrig. Fantastisk historie, ikke langt væk mod Cerkno, er også en partisan avisprinter. Og så er det værd at køre frem Tolmin, Bovec og Kobarid for at se den vidunderlige natur.

Vi lærte om dette i skolen, men du skal se det for at forstå den sande betydning og majestæt på dette sted. Der er tavler med fakta om dette skjulte hospital helt op til det (stien er virkelig smuk), samt citater fra de mennesker, der faktisk tilbragte tid der, både personalet og de sårede, og du får virkelig at mærke betydning og stedets majestæt. Hytterne er blevet renoveret, og du får virkelig fornemmelsen af, hvad der foregik der under krigen. Det er bevægende, inspirerende, men også trist og til tider overvældende.

Grat kombination - fantastisk natur langs kløften og imponerende museum til toppen af ​​ikke for svær vandretur. Sørg for at tage derhen i et dejligt vejr - Vi havde lidt regn, og det bliver glat. Men det var også imponerende! Jeg er ikke et museumssjov, så vi tilbragte ikke meget tid i hytterne - men det er forbløffende, hvordan de overlevede under hårde forhold. Sted at tænke på krige, der aldrig skulle ske.


Tal: Franja Partisan Hospital

Efter min mening bør galleriet fjernes fra artiklen. Den fylder næsten halvdelen af ​​sin længde, hvilket ikke er egnet. Jeg er ikke imod billeder generelt, men de skal bruges langs teksten. Når jeg kigger på andre artikler, som Paris eller Pablo Picasso eller Kakadu National Park eller Machu Picchu, eller en zillion andre gode artikler, har jeg i langt de fleste tilfælde ikke bemærket et stort galleri der, så jeg kan ikke se nogen grund hvorfor det skulle indgå i netop denne artikel. Du er velkommen til at udvide artiklen og inkludere yderligere billeder i sektionerne, men jeg tror ikke, at et uendeligt voksende galleri bidrager væsentligt til forståelsen af ​​Franja -hospitalet. Det fylder kun en side og gør det sværere for folk med langsomme internetforbindelser at læse den. Per WP: IKKE Wikipedia er hverken et spejl eller et lager af links, billeder eller mediefiler. Et sådant depot er Commons, og et link til det mere eller mindre samme galleri, der allerede er givet i bunden. -Eleassar min tale 16:50, 30. marts 2008 (UTC)

  • Jeg må sige, at jeg ikke er helt enig. Jeg tror slet ikke, at galleriet fylder siden op. Desuden synes jeg, at et galleri er yderst nyttigt til at danne et mentalt billede af et sted som Franja og dermed forstå, hvordan det var. Der er faktisk et velkendt maksimum på, at et billede er tusind ord værd. Men hvis der er enighed om, at det skal gå, skal det synspunkt naturligvis sejre. AlasdairGreen27 (diskussion) 17:09, 30. marts 2008 (UTC)

Jeg er ikke imod at inkludere billeder i artiklen, men de skal hellere bruges til at illustrere teksten end at stå for deres egen. Hvad angår oprettelse af et mentalt billede, har jeg tilføjet et eksternt link [1] til artiklen, der vil hjælpe dig meget mere end et galleri. -Eleassar min tale 17:25, 30. marts 2008 (UTC)

Jeg er med Eleassar om denne, denne artikel har alt for mange billeder på den. Billedet øverst er mere end tilstrækkeligt til at illustrere emnet. - Hej Annyong (siger whaaat ?!) 17:18, 30. marts 2008 (UTC)

Må jeg fjerne galleriet nu? Hvis der ikke er yderligere modstand, gør jeg dette om et par dage, ellers bliver vi nødt til at gennemgå yderligere tvistbilæggelsesprocesser. -Eleassar min tale 09:59, 31. marts 2008 (UTC) Kompis, jeg kan se, at det overvældende flertal af dem, der har bidraget til denne diskussion (66%) er imod mig, så jeg vil indrømme yndefuldt. :-) Seriøst, jeg gider virkelig ikke så meget. Jeg vil hellere se galleriet blive, men det er ikke så vigtigt. Tag den ud, hvis du vil. Jeg synes, at de links, du har føjet til Boštjan Burgers materiale, er gode. AlasdairGreen27 (diskussion) 10:04, 31. marts 2008 (UTC) Heh, aw. Jeg vil bare sige godt job til jer begge for at løse dette problem så fredeligt. Hvis du gør det, er du foran mange af dine andre redaktører. Fortsæt det gode arbejde! - Hej Annyong (siger whaaat ?!) 15:18, 31. marts 2008 (UTC)


Interaktiv plan for Franja

Udover de grundlæggende oplysninger om hver kabine, kan du også finde indholdet af informationstavlerne i dem.

1 - Kabine for sårede med læ

Denne hytte til 36 personer blev bygget i maj 1944. Lystrummet nedenunder tilbød plads til 28 immobile patienter. Ventilation blev leveret af rør, der forbandt det underjordiske anlæg til bredden af ​​den nærliggende strøm på tre punkter. Loftet i læet blev adskilt fra kabinen og dækket med et 60 cm tykt lag sand. Dette var for at forhindre, at en brand i kabinen spredte sig til huslyet. Under den sidste fjendtlige offensiv i marts 1945, da besættelsestropperne opholdt sig i nærheden i et par dage og endda iværksatte et angreb på kløften, måtte de sårede tilbringe flere dage i dette underjordiske skjulested.

Lige før det blev mørkt, begyndte angrebet. Det buldrede og brølede i mere end en halv time. Da alt faldt til ro, gik jeg for at se, om de sårede i bunkers havde brug for hjælp. Gennem et rør, der strakte sig fra bunkeren under kabinen, rapporterede sygeplejerske Jožko, at en såret soldat, Gino, led af alvorlig flatulens. Han følte, at maven var ved at eksplodere. Fordi bunkerudgangen ikke kunne åbnes, spurgte jeg ham, om han havde en saks og en skalpel. Svaret var bekræftende. Jeg gav ham instruktioner til operationen. I vandløbet nær åbningen af ​​ventilationsrøret ventede jeg på hans besked. Heldigvis trak patienten igennem. ”

“Vi ændrede naturligvis forbindingen på hver sårede person hver dag. Alle sygeplejersker deltog altid i denne procedure. Vi holdt den samme rækkefølge: Jože afklædte sårene, lægen ryddede alt op under undersøgelsen, Lida og jeg rakte hende tamponer og instrumenter, og derefter rensede Danilo såret. Der var fuldstændig stilhed i rummet, mens bandagerne blev ændret. Dette var den vigtigste opgave ud over kirurgi, for de sårede krigere vidste, at helbredelsen af ​​deres alvorlige sår afhang af det. Efter påklædningen var færdig, nød alle en cigaret. ”

Pasningen af ​​de tilskadekomne og patienterne var for det meste sygeplejepersonalets ansvar. De blev uddannet på arbejdspladsen og i to kurser organiseret på hospitalet. Det første kursus, der blev ledet af lægerne Franci Derganc og Franja Bojc Bidovec, deltog i ni sygeplejersker. På det andet kursus deltog yderligere fem sygeplejersker. Oversygeplejersken, Lidija Zlatoper, var den eneste sygeplejerske, der havde afsluttet gymnasiet i Gorica.

Isolationskabinen, bygget i maj 1944, var beregnet til sårede med infektionssygdomme og til døende patienter. 78 af omkring 600 sårede patienter døde på hospitalet, hovedsagelig på grund af åbne sår på maveorganerne efterfulgt af hoved- og brystskader. Den mest dødelige af infektionerne var gasgangren - en infektion, hvor gas ophobes i vævet.

I oktober 1944 blev en patient med tyfus bragt til hospitalet, det eneste tilfælde i Franjas historie. Han blev anbragt i isolationskabinen. Hans lidelse, især den sidste nat før hans død, er umulig at beskrive. Jeg var på vagt. Da jeg kom til ham, var han allerede dybt vanvittig, og sved strømmede fra hele hans krop. Jeg rapporterede til lægen om hans tilstand, men hun havde ikke noget at give ham. ”

(Franc Šmid – Vinotok, sygeplejerske)

Kabinen blev bygget i begyndelsen af ​​december 1944. Forstuen indeholdt et apotek og et steriliseringsområde. Operationer blev sjældent udført uden bedøvelse, og kirurgerne havde normalt ether og andre lægemidler til rådighed. Der manglede antibiotika, blod og plasma. Personalet måtte også improvisere, når de desinficerede kirurgisk linned og instrumenter. Sanitærmateriale og medicin blev sendt af feltorganisationer, og hjælpen kom også gennem hemmelige forbindelser så langt væk som Milano og Graz. I marts 1944 ankom den første sending sanitetsmateriale fra de allierede. Forskellige apparater til immobilisering af sårede lemmer blev fremstillet på hospitalet af sygeplejerske Jože Čerin.

“Vi modtog assistance fra feltorganisationer. Under hver indsamlingskampagne for hospitalet indeholdt pakkerne også bandagemateriale. Pakker blev sjældent købt på apoteker, fordi indkøb af medicin blev kontrolleret af besætterne og deres hjælpere. Pakkerne blev hovedsagelig syet af gamle lagner, bleer eller linned. Alt blev omhyggeligt vasket, nedfældet og leveret til kommunikationsposten med et brev eller sendt med kurer. ”

(Franja Bojc Bidovec, læge)

Læge Bogdan Brecelj undersøgte mig kort efter min ankomst på hospitalet. Jeg fik at vide, at han ville operere mig, og at jeg skulle forberede mig på det. De spurgte mig, om jeg var vant til alkohol. Jeg sagde nej. De bragte mig en flaske hjemmelavet snaps, angiveligt slivovitz, og fortalte mig at drikke af den, så længe jeg kunne. Og jeg drak virkelig så meget som jeg kunne, fordi jeg begyndte at indse, hvad der var på vej. Hele min krop rystede, da jeg slugte den snaps, som jeg ikke var vant til. Jeg blev stiv, ufølsom, mit hoved snurrede, jeg var svimmel og svajende ... ”

(Dušan Furlan, såret soldat)

4 - Lægers værelse og plads til de sårede

Kabinen blev bygget i januar 1944. Indtil opførelsen af ​​operationshytten husede denne kabine et operationsrum, der også fungerede som administratorens arbejds- og stue. I anden del var der plads til de sårede. Dette værelse var beregnet til kvinder og blev spøgeligt kaldt klosteret. Men da der ikke var mange kvinder, lå der også mænd i dette rum. Blandt dem var Harold C. Adams, en amerikansk luftvåbenpilot. Han var en af ​​hundredvis af allierede piloter reddet af slovenske partisaner. Ud over Adams blev omkring 100 sårede soldater af andre nationaliteter behandlet på dette hospital: de mest talrige var italienere, efterfulgt af medlemmer af forskellige nationer i det tidligere Sovjetunionen og Jugoslavien (russere, kroater, serbere ...) og en række franskmænd , Polakker, østrigere og amerikanere.

Volčjak blev født som søn af en arbejderfamilie i Virmaše nær Škofja Loka. Han studerede medicin i Ljubljana og Zagreb. Først arbejdede han som læge i Ptuj og åbnede derefter en lægepraksis i Žiri. Inden han sluttede sig til partisanerne, behandlede han lejlighedsvis de sårede. I november 1943 grundlagde han sammen med personalet dette partisanhospital i Pasice -kløften i Dolenji Novaki og blev dets første leder. Herfra blev han overført til stillingen som chef for medicinsk afdeling i 9. korps. Senere organiserede han en sundhedstjeneste i bakkerne i Brda. Efter krigen arbejdede han som læge i Ljubljana, Beograd, Zagreb og igen i Ljubljana. Han specialiserede sig i intern medicin og fik en doktorgrad i militær sundhedspleje. Han studerede også historien om partisan sundhedspleje og skrev flere artikler om dette emne.

Hun blev født i en bondefamilie i landsbyen Nemška vas nær Ribnica i Dolenjska -regionen. Efter eksamen fra den klassiske grammatikskole i Ljubljana besluttede hun at forfølge en lægekarriere. Hun studerede i Ljubljana, Beograd og Zagreb. Hun arbejdede som læge i Bohinjska Bistrica og i Ribnica. På grund af hendes deltagelse i frigørelsesbevægelsen blev hun fængslet flere gange. Fra januar 1944 til krigens afslutning drev hun dette partisanhospital, der blev opkaldt efter hende allerede i krigstiden. Efter krigen arbejdede hun på de militære hospitaler i Gorica, Trieste og Ljubljana indtil 1946 og derefter på gynækologi og obstetrikklinikker i Beograd og Ljubljana.

Harold Adams var en amerikansk luftvåbnets pilot, hvis fly blev skudt ned i februar 1944. Han skadede sit ben, da han landede på Šentviška -plateauet og blev kørt til hospitalet. Han lå i denne hytte. På væggen ved siden af ​​sin køjeseng, der var beklædt med papir, lavede han små kryds for at markere de dage, der blev brugt på hospitalet. Personalet på Franja Partisan Hospital gjorde det muligt for den amerikanske løjtnantpilot at vende sikkert hjem. Efter krigen sendte sygeplejersken Danilo Šuligoj, som han havde været i kontakt med, ham netop denne seddel som en souvenir. Hans søn Cory Adams donerede det til museet for flere år siden.

En røntgenmaskine var meget sjælden på partisanske hospitaler. For at huse den blev der bygget en særlig kabine i marts 1945. Kabinen blev beklædt med pap og sort klud hentet fra allierede faldskærme. Efter krigen blev røntgenapparatet taget fra hospitalet og fortsatte med at tjene sit formål i flere år endnu, for sidste gang i Vransko. Det blev returneret i 1967. Sammen med de fleste af de autentiske museumseksemplarer blev røntgenapparatet fuldstændig ødelagt i oversvømmelsen i september 2007. Disse genstande er blevet erstattet af kopier og erstatningseksemplarer, der stammer fra hospitalsoperationens periode.

Hospitalets største erhvervelse var en vidunderlig røntgenapparat, der blev hentet i marts 1945 fra Žiri, tidligere ejet af Dr. Demšar, en afdød læge. Vi byggede et ægte palads til det, 4 ࡩ m stort, og beklædte det med pap og en sort faldskærm. Vi begyndte straks at bruge den, da vi havde længtes efter at have en i utallige vanskelige situationer. ”

(Franja Bojc Bidovec, læge)

Et rum under en overhængende sten fungerede som lager til bårer, som blev brugt til at transportere de sårede.

Et køkkenområde var placeret i kabine nr. 8. Lige før krigens slutning, i april 1945, blev der bygget en ny kabine, hvor der var et køkken og et lille rum, der fungerede som opbevaring. Kødlager blev skabt under en overhængende sten nær kabinen, hvor det var meget koldt. I første omgang blev hospitalet forsynet med mad fra de nærliggende omgivelser og senere fra Vipava -dalen. I marts 1944 begyndte allieret bistand at ankomme. Der manglede ikke mad, undtagen under fjendens angreb, da forsyningen blev standset.

Takket være forskellige kilder til fødevareforsyning havde vi næsten altid tre varme måltider om dagen. Om vinteren var måltiderne imidlertid for ensformige og bestod hovedsageligt af den lokale Primorska “minestrone ”. Under det sidste angreb, da forsyningen var fuldstændig blokeret, lavede vi måltider en gang om dagen, kun om natten. Som et supplement blev tørfoder distribueret til bunkerne før angrebet. ”

(Franja Bojc Bidovec, læge)

8 - Plads til sårede og spisestue

Dette var den første hytte i kløften, bygget i december 1943. Den havde to værelser: et værelse til sårede og et køkken. Personalet boede på loftet, mændene over rummet for de sårede, kvinderne over køkkenet og spisestuen. Lokalet havde plads nok til 50 patienter. Møblerne - vinduer, ovne og køjer - kom fra de forladte italienske militærbarakker.

Stien, der blev brugt til at bære de nødvendige materialer, var ekstremt vanskelig. På denne sti måtte vi klatre op og ned, krydse klipper, overvinde flere meters højdeforskel, gå langs kanterne af svimmel dybder og undgå store fald. Vi var mere vant til at bære et gevær end brædder. Da kammerat Volčjak lagde mærke til vores modløshed, satte han et eksempel ved at lægge et par brædder på hans skuldre og skynde sig af sted med dem på tværs af alle de tidligere nævnte forhindringer og barrierer. Vi tog mod og fulgte ham, da vi ikke havde til hensigt at komme bagud. ”

(Ivan Goljat, militær leder)

Ved siden af ​​det centrale hospital i Pasice -kløften, som også blev navngivet afdeling B, blev yderligere 10 mindre hospitalsafdelinger bygget og administreret af det centrale anlæg. Omkring 300 patienter med mindre skader blev behandlet på disse afdelinger. Medicinsk arbejde blev udført af sygeplejersker, kun Pokljuka-afdelingen i Jelovica havde en vagthavende læge, Antonio Ciccarelli.

Læge Franja besøgte vores afdeling flere gange. Hver gang inspicerede hun sårene og gav patienterne lidt mod til at hjælpe dem med at overvinde deres lidelser. Selvom vi ikke havde den komfort og sterilitet, der er almindelige på hospitaler i dag, fæstede patienternes sår ikke og helbredte endda hurtigt. De sårede blev sendt fra Centralhospitalet (fra slugten) til vores afdeling, da de ikke længere havde brug for lægehjælp. ”

(Alojz Plesničar - Gigi, sygeplejerske i afdeling A)

Jeg afslørede planerne om at bygge hospitalet til Gašper først, fordi jeg stolede på ham. Hver gang jeg så på hans himmelblå øjne, barnlige smil og stærke bygning, følte jeg, at jeg ville turde gennemgå de værste prøvelser med sådan en kammerat. Han var den første mandlige sygeplejerske i kløften og arbejdede senere på kommunikationsposten, som blev opdaget af den tyske besættelsesstyrke i april 1944. Da han reddede den sidste sårede, blev han ramt af fjendens kugle ved tærsklen til mølle. Dødens dør åbnede og lukkede efter ham så hurtigt, at han ikke fik en chance for at fortælle os noget gennem sit offer, han fortsætter med at fordømme alle verdens tyranner. ”

Kommunikationsposter var forposterne på de partisanske hospitaler. Franja Hospital havde flere sådanne pletter, som ofte ændrede sig. De mest kendte var på gårdene Podnjivč, Log, Cmilk og i Praprotnik Mølle ved Črna -bæk, hvor Rudi Katrašnik – Gašper arbejdede. Det medicinske arbejde på kommunikationsposterne var uafhængigt, krævende og ansvarligt. Sygeplejersken skulle kunne bedømme, hvor en skadet person skulle sendes i forhold til deres skade. De mest alvorligt sårede blev kørt til Centralhospitalet, dem med mindre alvorlige sår til en mindre afdeling, mens mennesker med mindre sår blev hos sygeplejersken på kommunikationsposten.

9 - Værksted, opbevaring, plads til sårede betjente og kommissærrum

Denne flerbrughytte blev bygget i 1944. Inde i kabinen var der vaskeri og systue eller værksted, madopbevaring, et værelse til tre patienter og et apotek. Loftet blev besat af den politiske kommissær, som var medlem af administrationen, der primært var ansvarlig for den politiske og moralske atmosfære på hospitalet.

Golgaden begyndte i juli, da de førte mig fra en afdeling til en anden, fra køje til køje og bad patienterne sige, hvad de har imod mig, for at afsløre alle mine fejl. To forbavsede øjne stirrede ud af hver køje. Patienterne var chokerede, forvirrede, bange. De vidste, hvor meget omsorg jeg viet dem, og svarede efter deres samvittighed. ”

(Franja Bojc Bidovec, læge)

Også registreret i Franja Partisan Hospitalets historie er en oplevelse, der især satte sine spor hos to læger, Viktor Volčjak og Franja Bojc Bidovec. I juli 1944 blev der efter klager fra nogle indflydelsesrige patienter og hospitalskommissæren anlagt straffesag mod de førnævnte læger ved Higher Military Court i 9. Corp. , og om nedgørelse af det allierede flag. Retssagen blev afsluttet i september 1944 med en ordre fra chefadvokaten, derefter SNOS Presidium – regeringen dengang – om, at der ikke var nogen grund til at retsforfølge de mistænkte, og at anklagerne ikke kunne antages til realitetsbehandling.

I marts 1994 blev vores madopbevaring fyldt til tops, efter at de allierede begyndte at yde betydelig hjælp til det 9. korps. I flere nætter kørte lastbiler med madforsyninger til Log, hvor vores personale læssede dem på landbrugsvogne, transporterede dem til Podnjivč og førte dem derefter til hospitalet. ”

(Franja Bojc Bidovec, læge)

Først blev mad leveret til hospitalet af medlemmerne af de nationale befrielseskomiteer - menneskers regeringer i Novaki og Cerkno. Efter at antallet af sårede mennesker og personale steg kraftigt, modtog de mad fra Vipava -dalen ved hjælp af særlige forsyningsenheder fra den partisanske hær. Allieret bistand begyndte at ankomme i marts 1944. På helligdage huskede befolkningen i Primorska de sårede og sendte dem adskillige pakker med mad og godbidder med kurer. Ledelsen på hospitalet takkede skriftligt alle de forskellige organisationer og udvalg, der havde indsamlet og sendt madpakker.

Multikabinen, der blev bygget i maj 1944, var den eneste kabine, der overlevede oversvømmelsen i september 2007, og er også den eneste kabine, der indeholder et antal originale indbyggede strukturelle elementer. Træhytterne, der blev bygget som nødhjælp i krigstid, skulle løbende fornyes i årtierne efter krigen. Den høje luftfugtighed i kløften accelererede forfaldet af trædele, og forskellige former for skader opstod også.

10 - Kabine for sygehuspersonale

Der var brug for et selvopofrende og pålideligt personale til opførelse af nye faciliteter, transport af sårede soldater og sanitære materialer, vagt- og forsvarsopgaver, i køkkenet, taylor- og træbearbejdningsværksteder, i vasketøjet og til andre hjælpeopgaver. Deres antal voksede samtidig med antallet af patienter. En liste fra 2. maj 1945 angiver, at hospitalet havde 46 ansatte. Et betydeligt antal helbredte patienter blev medlemmer af hospitalets personale. De blev indlogeret i kahytlofter, indtil arbejderkabiner blev bygget i september 1944. I denne hytte var det nederste rum beregnet til de mandlige medarbejdere - primært vagter, og loftet blev brugt af kvindelige sygeplejersker.

En østrigsk ved navn Alois Trummel kom til hospitalet. Han var i halvtredserne, en tidligere tysk soldat, der sluttede sig til partisanhæren. Han havde mindst 20 store bylder på nakken. Han havde store smerter og stønnede ofte: »Schmerzen, schmerzen.« Han talte ikke slovensk. Da han kom sig, blev han på hospitalet som skomager. ”

(Franc Šmid - Vinotok, mandlig sygeplejerske)

Vaskeriet blev bygget i oktober 1944. Tre vaskerier var ansvarlige for rent linned. De brugte vand fra vandløbet til at vaske vasketøjet. Et badekar med komfur blev bragt fra den militære kaserne i Cerkno, hvorefter folk kunne tage bade.

12 - Lus Desinfektion Tønde

Lus var et alvorligt problem i hæren. Af denne grund stod en lus desinfektions tønde foran vasketøjet, og blev brugt til at koge beklædningsgenstande fra sårede mennesker, der ankom til hospitalet dækket af lus. En almindelig benzintønde blev brugt til dette formål.

Livet på hospitalet var behageligt, arbejdet var organiseret, alle havde deres egne pligter. Sygeplejerskerne passede de sårede dag og nat, vaskerierne arbejdede konstant hele dagen lang. Vi andre var bærere og vagter på samme tid, jeg fik den ekstra opgave at desinficere patienter ’ beklædningsgenstande. Dette var et vigtigt og ansvarligt job, da vi ellers snart ville blive invaderet af lus på hele hospitalet. Det vigtigste udstyr til mit arbejde var desinfektionsløbet, som naturligvis ikke var købt i en butik, men tilpasset til dette formål fra en almindelig benzintønde af vores dygtige kammerater. ”

13 - Ugyldig plejefacilitet

The disabled people who were no longer able to fight were moved to the newly built disabled care facility in March 1945. This facility had two rooms: a bedroom with bunk beds brought from a quite distant German military post, and a living room whose furnishings were made by a male nurse and carpenter, Jože Vovk. In front of the facility, there was a sun terrace. The disabled people were very active in the cultural life of the hospital. They had their own choir, directed by a cultural worker, Albin Waingerl – nicknamed Čriček, Cricket. They contributed to the wall newspaper, which grew into a literary magazine entitled Patient's Bulletin in the summer of 1944. Čriček also prepared various lectures for them. Commemorations and meetings featuring political speeches, singing, recitations, and sketches were frequently organised. Revolutionary songs often raised the morale and instilled the hope that liberation was near. For those at Franja, the fervently awaited freedom arrived on 5 May 1945.

In the beginning of August 1944, the physician Franc Podkoritnik – nicknamed Daddy selected the severely injured patients who were no longer fit to fight, but were able to endure a long journey without major medical aid. We gathered at a very early hour, there were 31 of us, and were told that we had been chosen for transfer to Allied hospitals in southern Italy. We bid farewell to those comrades who were not able to join us, and headed for the valley.

(Andrej Fon – Slavko, injured soldier)

The enemy’s longlasting offensive in the summer of 1944 represented an increasingly greater threat to the partisan units, hinterland activities, and in particular the partisan hospitals in the area of the 9th Corp. For this reason, in August the units of the Corp carried out, in agreement with the Headquarters of the Slovenian Partisan Army, the evacuation of injured people from Primorska and Gorenjska to the Notranjska region, from where they were transported by plane to southern Italy. The evacuation of injured soldiers to southern Italy was a form of Allied assistance to the national liberation movement. Some 80 wounded people were evacuated from the Franja and Pavla partisan hospitals. The campaign was carefully conceived and organised. Five brigades comprised of approx. 3000 fighters participated in the rescue of injured soldiers.

“The days on which meetings were organised were our holidays in the hospital. How we talked about these meetings beforehand! Who would play? What would they play? What would they sing? And how much studying had to be done before meetings. Cook Anica stood in front of the stove in the kitchen with a ladle in one hand and her role in the other, Jože transported an injured soldier while practicing a recitation in his thoughts, or out loud.”

(Albin Weingerl – Čriček (cricket), cultural worker)

“We lay in the cabins. The most difficult time was when the sun was going down and dusk was nearing. Every evening at that time, we heard the sounds of a revolutionary song accompanied by a guitar or an accordion. Everyone, even the most severely injured patients, sang in spite of our grave wounds. This was an important part of treatment, which instilled us with courage and gave us faith in the days to come.

In the disabled care facility, which was built for us in 1945, we had beautiful new bunks, large windows in the bedroom, as well as a special room for study and entertainment.”

(Ivan Flajs, injured soldier)

Water for drinking and cooking was initially obtained from the mountain stream. Because it was often muddy and filled with sand after storms, a water supply system was installed at the end of February or March 1944. Drinking water was collected in two wooden, 500-litre barrels placed beneath the water spring in the northern part of the gorge. Water pipes and sinks were brought from an abandoned Italian military barracks in Cerkno. The water supply was connected to the washroom, kitchen, physicians' room, and the surgery cabin.

At the end of February 1944, an electric plant began to be planned at the hospital. Its construction was carried out by Ivan Goljat. A concrete dam was built, but considerable difficulties were caused by spring storms in May and June. Materials – wires, switches, insulators – were obtained from the military barracks in Cerkno, and also from an abandoned copper mine above Planina. The plant was put into trial operation on 10 June 1944. A water turbine with a direct current generator was installed in the cabin. This turbine was used only for lighting purposes. The X-ray machine could only be used after the hospital acquired a petrol engine with an alternating current generator.

The hospital staff was not allowed to give any remaining food to nearby farmers, and so they used it to rear two pigs. The pigsty was set up behind Cabin no. 9 with a provisional access path running below the cabin.

The construction of the bridge, which crossed the gorge approximately 12 m above the mountain stream bed, formed part of the preparations for the construction of two new cabins in the barely accessible northern part of the gorge. The cabins were built, but subsequently demolished after the first attack on the gorge in April 1944. The bridge was preserved because it provided access to the shelter for the wounded.

18 - Shelter for the Wounded

The shelter, probably built in March 1944, also served as a defence bunker. It had sufficient space to accommodate 16 wounded people. The entrance to the bunker was barricaded with a double wood panel. The half-metre-wide space in between was filled with sand in order to stop bullets. Embrasures were incorporated into the wall, which was then coated with camouflage paint and covered with moss and branches.

19 - Shelter for the Wounded

In the rocky slope of Mali Njivč, 30 m above the surgery cabin, another shelter for the wounded was erected in March or April 1944. Bunk beds for 26 wounded people were placed in the shelter, which is no longer accessible today.

The latrine was probably set up in January 1944. Finding a suitable location for it proved difficult, as the latrine had to be removed from the future surgery room.

In May 1944, new cabins were being hastily constructed in the gorge. After a two-day absence, Dr. Franja stood in the sand-covered yard and looked in astonishment at a five-point star made of moss, in the centre of which was a fountain made from a shower fixture. The patients and staff were as excited as children. They were praised for their resourcefulness, but also admonished. Owing to the danger of the star being noticed from the air, it had to be removed, but the fountain was preserved.

The first defence bunker was built in February 1944. Taking advantage od a natural rocky cave above the gorge, they enforced the entrance with a double wood panel filled with sand and stones. The bunker was only accessible via a 3-metre-long ladder.

1 - Cabin for the Wounded with Shelter

This cabin for 36 people was built in May 1944. The shelter underneath offered enough space for 28 immobile patients. Ventilation was provided by pipes that connected the underground facility to the bank of the nearby stream at three points. The ceiling of the shelter was separated from the cabin and covered with a 60 cm thick layer of sand. This was to prevent a fire in the cabin from spreading to the shelter. During the last enemy offensive in March 1945, when the occupying troops stayed nearby for a few days and even launched an attack on the gorge, the wounded had to spend several days in this underground hiding place.

During the attack

“Just before it grew dark, the attack began. It rumbled and roared for more than half an hour. When everything calmed down, I went to see if the wounded people in bunkers needed any assistance. Through a tube extending from the bunker beneath the cabin, nurse Jožko reported that a wounded soldier, Gino, was suffering from severe flatulence. He felt as if his stomach was about to explode. Because the bunker exit could not be opened, I asked him if he had scissors and a scalpel. Svaret var bekræftende. I gave him instructions for surgery. In the stream bed near the opening of the ventilation pipe, I waited for his message. Luckily, the patient pulled through.”

Care for wounded

“Of course we changed the dressings of each wounded person every day. All the nurses always took part in this procedure. We kept to the same order: Jože undressed the wounds, the physician cleaned everything up during the examination, Lida and I handed her the tampons and instruments, and then Danilo redressed the wound. There was complete silence in the room while the dressings were being changed. This was the most important task besides surgery, for the wounded fighters knew that the healing of their severe wounds depended on it. After dressing was finished, everyone enjoyed a cigarette.”

Partisan nurses

The care of the injured and the patients was mostly the responsibility of the nursing staff. They were trained at the workplace and in two courses organised in the hospital. The first course, which was led by doctors Franci Derganc and Franja Bojc Bidovec was attended by nine nurses. The second course was attended by another five nurses. The head nurse, Lidija Zlatoper, was the only nurse who had completed secondary medical school in Gorica.

The isolation cabin, built in May 1944, was intended for the wounded with infectious diseases and for dying patients. 78 of about 600 wounded patients died in the hospital, mostly due to open wounds on the abdominal organs, followed by head and chest injuries. The most deadly of the infections was gas gangrene - an infection in which gas accumulates in the tissue.

The medical record of the patient

End of hope

“In October 1944, a patient with typhoid fever was brought to the hospital, the only such case in the history of Franja. He was placed in the isolation cabin. His suffering, especially during the last night before his death, is impossible to describe. I was on duty. When I came to him, he was already deeply delirious and sweat was pouring from his entire body. I reported to the physician on his condition, but she had nothing to give him.”

(Franc Šmid – Vinotok, nurse)

The cabin was built in early December 1944. The vestibule contained a pharmacy and a sterilisation area. Operations were rarely performed without anaesthesia, and the surgeons usually had ether and other drugs at their disposal. There was a lack of antibiotics, blood and plasma. The staff also had to improvise when disinfecting surgical linen and instruments. Sanitary material and medicines were sent by field organisations, and help also came through secret connexions from as far away as Milan and Graz. In March 1944 the first consignment of sanitary material arrived from the Allies. Various apparatuses for immobilising injured limbs were made in the hospital by nurse Jože Čerin.

Dressings adn medicines

“We received assistance from field organisations. During every collection campaign for the hospital, the packages also contained dressing materials. Packets were rarely purchased in pharmacies, because the purchase of medicines was controlled by the occupiers and their helpers. The packages sent were mostly sewn from old sheets, diapers or linen. Everything was carefully washed, hemmed, and delivered to the communication post with a letter or sent by courier.”

(Franja Bojc Bidovec, physician)

Protocol of the surgical team

“Physician Bogdan Brecelj examined me soon after my arrival at the hospital. I was told he would operate on me, and that I should prepare for it. They asked me if I was used to alcohol. I said no. They brought me a bottle of homemade schnapps, supposedly slivovitz, and told me to drink from it for as long as I could. And I really did drink as much as I could, because I began to realize what was coming. My whole body was shaking as I swallowed the schnapps that I wasn’t used to. I was becoming stiff, insensitive, my head was spinning, I was dizzy and swaying…”

(Dušan Furlan, wounded soldier)

4 - Physicians' Room and Room for the Wounded

The cabin was built in January 1944. Until the construction of the surgery cabin, this cabin housed a surgery room, which also served as the administrator's working and living room. In the second part, there was a room for the wounded. Intended for women, this room was jokingly called the cloister. But as there were not many women, men also lay in this room. Among them was Harold C. Adams, an American Air Force pilot. He was one of hundreds of Allied pilots rescued by Slovenian partisans. In addition to Adams, about 100 wounded soldiers of other nationalities were treated in this hospital: the most numerous were Italians, followed by members of various nations of the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia (Russians, Croats, Serbs …) and a number of Frenchmen, Poles, Austrians, and Americans.

Viktor Volčjak (1913 - 1987)

Volčjak was born as the son of a working class family in Virmaše near Škofja Loka. He studied medicine in Ljubljana and Zagreb. First he worked as a doctor in Ptuj and then opened a medical practice in Žiri. Before joining the partisans, he occasionally treated the wounded. In November 1943, together with the staff, he founded this partisan hospital in the Pasice gorge in Dolenji Novaki and became its first manager. From here he was transferred to the post of the head of the medical department of the 9th Corps. Later he organised a health service in the hills of Brda. After the war, he worked as a doctor in Ljubljana, Belgrade, Zagreb, and again in Ljubljana. He specialised in internal medicine and earned a doctorate in military health care. He also studied the history of partisan health care and wrote several articles on this subject.

Franja Bojc Bidovec (1913 - 1985)

She was born in a peasant family in the village of Nemška vas near Ribnica in the Dolenjska region. After graduating from the classical grammar school in Ljubljana, she decided to pursue a medical career. She studied in Ljubljana, Belgrade, and Zagreb. She worked as a doctor in Bohinjska Bistrica and in Ribnica. Because of her participation in the liberation movement, she was imprisoned several times. From January 1944 until the end of the war, she ran this partisan hospital, which was named after her already in the wartime. After the war, she worked in the military hospitals of Gorica, Trieste, and Ljubljana until 1946, and then in the gynaecology and obstetrics clinics in Belgrade and Ljubljana.

The story of an allied pilot

Harold Adams was an American Air Force pilot whose plane was shot down in February 1944. He injured his leg when landing on the Šentviška plateau and was taken to hospital. He lay in this cabin. On the wall next to his bunk bed, which was lined with paper, he made little crosses to mark the days spent in the hospital. The staff of the Franja Partisan Hospital enabled the American lieutenant pilot to return home safely. After the war, nurse Danilo Šuligoj, with whom he had remained in contact, sent him this very note as a souvenir. His son Cory Adams donated it to the museum several years ago.

An X-ray machine was very rare in partisan hospitals. To house it, a special cabin was built in March 1945. The interior of the cabin was lined with cardboard and black cloth obtained from Allied parachutes. After the war, the X-ray machine was taken from the hospital and continued to serve its purpose for several more years, for the last time in Vransko. It was returned in 1967. Together with most of the authentic museum specimens, the X-ray machine was completely destroyed in the flood of September 2007. These items have been replaced by copies and substitute specimens dating from the period of the hospital's operations.

X*ray aparatus - an invalueable acquisition

“The hospital’s greatest acquisition was a wonderful x-ray machine obtained in March 1945 from Žiri, formerly owned by Dr. Demšar, a deceased physician. We built a veritable palace for it, 4ࡩ m large, and lined it with cardboard and a black parachute. We immediately started to use it, as we had longed to have one in countless difficult situations.”

(Franja Bojc Bidovec, physician)

A space under an overhanging rock served as a storage for stretchers, which were used to transport the wounded.

Stretcher Storage, June 1945

A kitchen area was located in cabin no. 8. Just before the end of the war, in April 1945, a new cabin was built in which there was a kitchen and a small room serving as a storage. Meat storage was created beneath an overhanging rock near the cabin, where it was very cold. Initially, the hospital was supplied with food from the nearby surroundings, and later on from the Vipava Valley. In March 1944, Allied aid began to arrive. There was no lack of food, except during enemy attacks, when supply was stopped.

Never empty pot

“Thanks to various sources of food supply, we almost always had three warm meals a day. In the winter, however, the meals were too monotonous and mostly consisted of the local Primorska “minestrone”. During the last attack, when the supply was completely blocked, we cooked meals once a day, only at night. As a supplement, dry food was distributed to the bunkers before the attack.”

(Franja Bojc Bidovec, physician)

8 - Room for the Wounded and Dining Room

This was the first cabin in the gorge, built in December 1943. It had two rooms: a room for the wounded and a kitchen. The staff lived in the attic, the men above the room for the wounded, the women above the kitchen and the dining room. The room had enough space for 50 patients. The furniture - windows, stoves and bunks - came from the abandoned Italian military barracks.

Construction of a post

“The path used to carry the required materials was extremely arduous. On this path, we had to climb up and down, traverse rocks, overcome several metres of height difference, walk along the edges of vertiginous depths, and avoid any large precipices. We were more used to carrying a rifle than boards. When comrade Volčjak noticed our discouragement, he set an example by loading a few boards on his shoulders and rushing off with them across all the previously mentioned obstacles and barriers. We took courage and followed him, as we had no intention of falling behind.”

(Ivan Goljat, military leader)

Departments of the Franja hospital

Alongside the central hospital in the Pasice gorge, which was also named Department B, an additional 10 smaller hospital departments were built and managed by the central facility. Around 300 patients with minor injuries were treated in these departments. Medical work was performed by nurses only the Pokljuka Department in Jelovica had an on-duty physician, Antonio Ciccarelli.

In department a

“Doctor Franja visited our department on several occasions. Each time she inspected the wounds and gave the patients a little courage to help them overcome their suffering. Although we did not have the comfort and sterility that are common in hospitals today, the patients’ wounds did not fester and even healed quickly. The wounded were sent from the Central Hospital (from the gorge) to our department when they no longer needed medical attention.”

(Alojz Plesničar – Gigi, nurse in Department A)

Gašper - the nurse at the communication post

“I revealed the plans to build the hospital to Gašper first because I trusted him. Whenever I looked at his sky-blue eyes, childish smile and strong build, I felt I would dare to undergo the worst trials with such a comrade. He was the first male nurse in the gorge, and later worked at the communication post, which was discovered by German occupying forces in April 1944. As he was rescuing the last wounded person, he was hit by the enemy bullet at the threshold of the mill. The death’s door opened and closed after him so quickly that he didn’t get a chance to tell us anything through his sacrifice, he continues to condemn all the tyrants of this world.”

Communication posts

Communication posts were the outposts of the partisan hospitals. Franja Hospital had several such spots, which changed frequently. The best known were on the farms Podnjivč, Log, Cmilk and in the Praprotnik Mill by the Črna brook, which is where Rudi Katrašnik – Gašper worked. The medical work at the communication posts was independent, demanding and responsible. The nurse had to be able to judge where to send an injured person in relation to their injury. The most seriously injured were taken to the Central Hospital, those with less severe wounds to a smaller ward, while people with minor wounds remained with the nurse at the communication post.

9 - Workshop, Storage, Room for Wounded Officers, and Commissioner's Room

This multi-purpose cabin was built in 1944. Inside the cabin there was a laundry and sewing room or workshop, a food storage, a room for three patients, and a pharmacy. The attic was occupied by the political commissioner, who was a member of the administration primarily responsible for the political and moral atmosphere in the hospital.

Unjustly accused

“The calvary began in July, when they led me from one department to another, from bunk to bunk, asking patients to say what they have against me, to reveal all my mistakes. Two astonished eyes stared out of every bunk. The patients were shocked, confused, afraid. They knew how much care I was devoting to them, and answered according to their conscience.”

(Franja Bojc Bidovec, physician)

Court trial

Also recorded in the history of the Franja Partisan Hospital is an experience that particularly left its mark on two doctors, Viktor Volčjak and Franja Bojc Bidovec. In July 1944, following complaints from some influential patients and the hospital commissioner, criminal proceedings were brought against the aforementioned doctors at the Higher Military Court of the 9th Corp. They were accused of an unfriendly attitude towards the staff and patients, negligent performance of duties, and of belittlement of the Allied flag. The trial was concluded in September 1944 with an order from the Chief Public Prosecutor then SNOS Presidium – the government at the time – stating that there was no reason to prosecute the suspects and that the charges were not admissible.

Food storage

“In March 1994, our food storage was filled to the top after the Allies began to provide substantial aid to the 9th Corps. For several nights, trucks with food supplies drove to Log, where our staff reloaded them onto farm wagons, transported them to Podnjivč, and then carried them to the hospital.”

(Franja Bojc Bidovec, physician)

At first, food was supplied to the hospital by the members of national liberation committees – bodies of people’s government – in Novaki and Cerkno. After the number of injured people and staff rose sharply, they received food from the Vipava valley with the help of special supply units of the partisan army. Allied aid began to arrive in March 1944. On holidays, the people of Primorska remembered the wounded and sent them numerous packages with food and goodies by courier. The management of the hospital thanked in writing all the various organizations and committees which had collected and sent food packages.

it survived the flood

The multi-purpose cabin built in May 1944 was the only cabin that survived the flood of September 2007, and is also the only cabin containing a number of original in-built structural elements. The wooden cabins built as emergency shelters during wartime had to be continuously renewed in the decades following the war. The high humidity in the gorge accelerated the decay of wooden parts, and various types of damage also occurred.

10 - Cabin for Hospital Staff

A self-sacrificing and reliable staff was needed for the construction of new facilities, transport of injured soldiers and sanitary materials, guard and defence tasks, in the kitchen, tayloring and woodworking workshops, in the laundry, and for other auxiliary tasks. Their numbers grew concurrently with the number of patients. A list dating from 2nd May 1945 indicates that the hospital had 46 staff members. A considerable number of healed patients became members of the hospital staff. They were lodged in cabin attics, until the workers’ cabins were built in September 1944. In these cabin, the lower room was intended for the male staff members – primarily guards, and the attic was used by female nurses.

A shoemaker Alois

“An Austrian named Alois Trummel came to the hospital. He was in his fifties, a former German soldier who joined the partisan army. He had at least 20 large abscesses on the back of his neck. He was in deep pain, frequently moaning: »Schmerzen, schmerzen.« He did not speak Slovenian. When he recovered, he stayed on at the hospital as a shoemaker.”

(Franc Šmid – Vinotok, male nurse)

The laundry was built in October 1944. Three laundresses were responsible for clean linen. They used water from the stream to wash the laundry. A bathtub with a stove was brought from the military barracks in Cerkno, after which people were able to take baths.

12 - Lice Disinfection Barrel

Lice were a serious problem in the army. For this reason, a lice disinfection barrel stood in front of the laundry, and was used to boil the garments of injured people arriving at the hospital covered in lice. An ordinary petrol barrel was used for this purpose.

Taking care of the hygiene

“Life in the hospital was pleasant, the work was organised, everyone had their own duties. The nurses cared for the wounded day and night, the laundresses worked constantly all day long. The rest of us were bearers and guards at the same time, I was given the additional task of disinfecting patients’ garments. This was an important and responsible job, as we would otherwise soon be invaded by lice throughout the hospital. The most important piece of equipment for my work was the disinfection barrel, which had naturally not been purchased in a store, but adapted for this purpose from an ordinary petrol barrel by our skilful comrades.”

13 - Invalid Care Facility

The disabled people who were no longer able to fight were moved to the newly built disabled care facility in March 1945. This facility had two rooms: a bedroom with bunk beds brought from a quite distant German military post, and a living room whose furnishings were made by a male nurse and carpenter, Jože Vovk. In front of the facility, there was a sun terrace. The disabled people were very active in the cultural life of the hospital. They had their own choir, directed by a cultural worker, Albin Waingerl – nicknamed Čriček, Cricket. They contributed to the wall newspaper, which grew into a literary magazine entitled Patient's Bulletin in the summer of 1944. Čriček also prepared various lectures for them. Commemorations and meetings featuring political speeches, singing, recitations, and sketches were frequently organised. Revolutionary songs often raised the morale and instilled the hope that liberation was near. For those at Franja, the fervently awaited freedom arrived on 5 May 1945.

Evacuation to southern Italy

Evacuation to southern Italy

In the beginning of August 1944, the physician Franc Podkoritnik – nicknamed Daddy selected the severely injured patients who were no longer fit to fight, but were able to endure a long journey without major medical aid. We gathered at a very early hour, there were 31 of us, and were told that we had been chosen for transfer to Allied hospitals in southern Italy. We bid farewell to those comrades who were not able to join us, and headed for the valley.

(Andrej Fon – Slavko, injured soldier)

About the evacuation

The enemy’s longlasting offensive in the summer of 1944 represented an increasingly greater threat to the partisan units, hinterland activities, and in particular the partisan hospitals in the area of the 9th Corp. For this reason, in August the units of the Corp carried out, in agreement with the Headquarters of the Slovenian Partisan Army, the evacuation of injured people from Primorska and Gorenjska to the Notranjska region, from where they were transported by plane to southern Italy. The evacuation of injured soldiers to southern Italy was a form of Allied assistance to the national liberation movement. Some 80 wounded people were evacuated from the Franja and Pavla partisan hospitals. The campaign was carefully conceived and organised. Five brigades comprised of approx. 3000 fighters participated in the rescue of injured soldiers.

Meetings and Commemorations

Meetings and commemorations

“The days on which meetings were organised were our holidays in the hospital. How we talked about these meetings beforehand! Who would play? What would they play? What would they sing? And how much studying had to be done before meetings. Cook Anica stood in front of the stove in the kitchen with a ladle in one hand and her role in the other, Jože transported an injured soldier while practicing a recitation in his thoughts, or out loud.”

(Albin Weingerl – Čriček (cricket), cultural worker)

Among invalids

“We lay in the cabins. The most difficult time was when the sun was going down and dusk was nearing. Every evening at that time, we heard the sounds of a revolutionary song accompanied by a guitar or an accordion. Everyone, even the most severely injured patients, sang in spite of our grave wounds. This was an important part of treatment, which instilled us with courage and gave us faith in the days to come.

In the disabled care facility, which was built for us in 1945, we had beautiful new bunks, large windows in the bedroom, as well as a special room for study and entertainment.”

(Ivan Flajs, injured soldier)

Water for drinking and cooking was initially obtained from the mountain stream. Because it was often muddy and filled with sand after storms, a water supply system was installed at the end of February or March 1944. Drinking water was collected in two wooden, 500-litre barrels placed beneath the water spring in the northern part of the gorge. Water pipes and sinks were brought from an abandoned Italian military barracks in Cerkno. The water supply was connected to the washroom, kitchen, physicians' room, and the surgery cabin.

At the end of February 1944, an electric plant began to be planned at the hospital. Its construction was carried out by Ivan Goljat. A concrete dam was built, but considerable difficulties were caused by spring storms in May and June. Materials – wires, switches, insulators – were obtained from the military barracks in Cerkno, and also from an abandoned copper mine above Planina. The plant was put into trial operation on 10 June 1944. A water turbine with a direct current generator was installed in the cabin. This turbine was used only for lighting purposes. The X-ray machine could only be used after the hospital acquired a petrol engine with an alternating current generator.

The hospital staff was not allowed to give any remaining food to nearby farmers, and so they used it to rear two pigs. The pigsty was set up behind Cabin no. 9 with a provisional access path running below the cabin.

The construction of the bridge, which crossed the gorge approximately 12 m above the mountain stream bed, formed part of the preparations for the construction of two new cabins in the barely accessible northern part of the gorge. The cabins were built, but subsequently demolished after the first attack on the gorge in April 1944. The bridge was preserved because it provided access to the shelter for the wounded.

18 - Shelter for the Wounded

The shelter, probably built in March 1944, also served as a defence bunker. It had sufficient space to accommodate 16 wounded people. The entrance to the bunker was barricaded with a double wood panel. The half-metre-wide space in between was filled with sand in order to stop bullets. Embrasures were incorporated into the wall, which was then coated with camouflage paint and covered with moss and branches.

19 - Shelter for the Wounded

In the rocky slope of Mali Njivč, 30 m above the surgery cabin, another shelter for the wounded was erected in March or April 1944. Bunk beds for 26 wounded people were placed in the shelter, which is no longer accessible today.

The latrine was probably set up in January 1944. Finding a suitable location for it proved difficult, as the latrine had to be removed from the future surgery room.

In May 1944, new cabins were being hastily constructed in the gorge. After a two-day absence, Dr. Franja stood in the sand-covered yard and looked in astonishment at a five-point star made of moss, in the centre of which was a fountain made from a shower fixture. The patients and staff were as excited as children. They were praised for their resourcefulness, but also admonished. Owing to the danger of the star being noticed from the air, it had to be removed, but the fountain was preserved.

The first defence bunker was built in February 1944. Taking advantage od a natural rocky cave above the gorge, they enforced the entrance with a double wood panel filled with sand and stones. The bunker was only accessible via a 3-metre-long ladder.


Franja Partisan Hospital - History

The former »Franja« partisan hospital is located in a gorge near Cerkno in western Slovenia. Between 1943 and 1945, wounded partisans were treated in this concealed hospital.


Near Dolenji Novaki, 1945, Huts fitted into the gorge, Fototeka Cerkljanskega muzeja


Near Dolenji Novaki, 2007, Former hospital huts which now house the memorial, Fototeka Cerkljanskega muzeja


Near Dolenji Novaki, 1945, Huts fitted into the gorge, Fototeka Cerkljanskega muzeja


Near Dolenji Novaki, 2007, Former hospital huts which now house the memorial, Fototeka Cerkljanskega muzeja


Near Dolenji Novaki, 2010, Sickbay, Laurent Louis


Near Dolenji Novaki, 2007, Huts which now house the memorial, Partizanska bolnica Franja, Fototeka Cerkljanskega muzeja


Near Dolenji Novaki, 2010, Huts in the gorge, Laurent Louis


Near Dolenji Novaki, 2010, Office, Laurent Louis


Franja Partisan Hospital

The Franja Partisan Hospital, or Partizanska bolnica Franja in Slovenian, at Dolenji Novaki near Cerkno is a group of functionally-arranged partisan medical facilities. The beauty of the place is that it is located in the narrow, hardly accessible Pasice Gorge, which is a natural attraction itself.

The partisan hospital complex comprises 14 wooden constructions and several small secondary facilities. All the buildings were gradually set up in the difficult period from December 1943 to May 1945.

The hospital was among the best-equipped of hidden hospitals. It boasted an X-ray machine, an operating room, a care facility for the disabled, and even a small electric plant. Most of the equipment was well-preserved on-site until the ruining flood of 2007. The complex went through a complete renovation, which was finished in May 2010.

Franja has received a prestigious award presented by the Committee for European Heritage, the European Heritage Label, and is also included on a Tentative List of the candidates for a UNESCO World Heritage List. The site draws visitors interested in World Word II history, as we as those who love the harmonious blend of architecture and nature. A walk along the trail from the parking lot to the Pasice Gorge takes around 10 minutes. The trail winds along a stream, taking visitors across wooden bridges and stairs. Visitors can inform themselves with boards in Slovenian and English along the trail. For a better viewing experience, you can arrange a guided tour.

Today, the Franja Partisan Hospital is administered by Idrija Municipal Museum. Opening hours differ throughout the year. The best time to visit Franja is from April to September when it's open from 9 am to 6 pm. Moreover, if you visit the area in spring and summer, you can enjoy the richness of the flora and the fragrance of cyclamens. Throughout October, opening hours are from 9 am to 4 pm. In the low season from November to March, the site can be visited by appointment only.


Walter

Det Franja Partisan Hospital is a small simple clandestine field hospital located in the narrow, barely accessible Pasica gorge. The hospital complex is composed of 14 wooden buildings and several small auxiliary facilities. It was gradually set up in the period from December 1943 to May 1945 by the Slovenian resistance with the help of local inhabitants. It included an operating room, X-ray apparatus, an invalid care facility, and a small electric plant.

Most of the buildings have been wiped out by a disastrous flood in 2007. It was reconstructed using original elements whenever possible.

The hospital had a capacity of up to 120 patients, and provided treatment to a total of 522 severely wounded persons of various nationalities (Slovenes and citizens of Yugoslav nations, Italians, French, Russian, Poles, Americans and an Austrian). One of the patients, a captured German soldier, joined the hospital staff after his recovery and remained there until the end of the war.

Conspiracy and security were of crucial importance to all clandestine partisan hospitals. The only access was a path with footbridges and drawbridges hidden in the steep Pasica gorge. The wounded were blindfolded and carried to the hospital by staff, most often at night. There is now a wooden path leading to the facilities, and it is easy to imagine how difficult it must have been back then to go up carrying wounded patients. The path was defended by machine-gun nests still visible today.

The hospital was never discovered, and after the war, it became a symbol of the partisan movement.

I visited this site in June 2018. It is well sign-posted (though only in Slovenian : Partizanska Bolinca Franja), about an hour drive from Ljubljana, passing very nice slovenian hillsides and valleys. There is an entrance fee of 5 euros. The site is very interesting to visit, with explanations given to every buildings, and you can even consult a registrary of all the patients having been treated here. I found it to be a very emotional and educational visit and a strong symbol of humanity during an horrific war.

ICOMOS would probably note lack of authenticity, as it has been destroyed in 2007 and is now heavily restored. But at a time of polemics about inscription of site related to war (ie 2018 postponment of Western Front Memorials of WWWI), this site would convey a message of humanity, nobleness and comradeship transcending horrors of the war.


Se også

A view of the reconstructed barracs of the Franja Partisan Hospital in May 2010

The exterior view of the Franja Partisan Hospital

The interior of the doctors' room at the Franja Partisan Hospital, one of the many field hospitals that operated in Slovenia during the Second World War, named after doctor in charge Franja Bojc Bidovec

The operating room at the Franja Partisan Hospital. A precise reconstruction of the original interior that was devastated by huge floods in 2007.

The reopening of the Franja Partisan Hospital in May 2010, reconstructed after a catastrophic flood in 2007 that caused extensive damage and made the steep Pasice Gorge impassable

A kitchen interior at the Franja Partisan Hospital. An original 1943 interior had to be reconstructed after floods in 2007.

A room with bunk beds for the wounded in one of the 14 barracs of the Franja Partisan Hospital. A reconstructed site, 2010.

A power plant situated next to the Franja Partisan Hospital. A reconstruction 2010.

One of the barracs with an X ray & operating room. After reconstruction in 2010.

A view of the reconstructed barracs of the Franja Partisan Hospital in May 2010

A postcard with some pictures of the Franja Partisan Hospital before reconstruction

Dr Franja Bojc Bidovec, a doctor in charge at the Franja Partisan Hospital, which was named after her

Dr Viktor Volčjak. Photo archive related to Franja Partisan Hospital at the Idrija Municipal Museum


Se videoen: Partizanska bolnica Franja - o vlogi domačinov. Franja Partisan hospital - Local help (Juli 2022).


Kommentarer:

  1. Palt El

    Jeg er enig, denne store tanke vil være nyttig.

  2. Storm

    Jeg tror, ​​at du ikke har ret. Lad os diskutere.

  3. Brenius

    Jeg er bedre, måske, promolchu

  4. Tryp

    Du har ikke ret. Jeg er sikker. Vi vil diskutere. Skriv i PM, vi vil tale.



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