Information

Vanuatu Menneskerettigheder - Historie

Vanuatu Menneskerettigheder - Historie


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Kvinder

Voldtægt og vold i hjemmet: Voldtægt er en forbrydelse med en maksimal straf på livsvarigt fængsel. Loven kriminaliserer ikke specifikt voldtægt mod ægtefæller, men den kan retsforfølges i henhold til beslægtede love, der dækker overfald og vold i hjemmet. Politiet var imidlertid ofte tilbageholdende med at gribe ind i, hvad de betragtede indenlandske forhold.

Vold mod kvinder, især vold i hjemmet, var almindelig. Ifølge de seneste tilgængelige undersøgelsesdata oplevede 60 procent af kvinderne i et forhold fysisk eller seksuel vold af en partner i deres levetid. De fleste sager, herunder voldtægt, blev ikke anmeldt til myndighederne, fordi kvinder, især i landdistrikterne, var uvidende om deres rettigheder eller frygtede for yderligere misbrug.

Loven kriminaliserer vold i hjemmet og søger at beskytte kvinders og børns rettigheder. Overtrædere kan få maksimale fængselsstraffe på fem år, en maksimal bøde på 100.000 vatu ($ 928) eller begge dele. Loven opfordrer også politiet til at udstede beskyttelsesordrer, så længe der er trussel om vold. Politiet har en "no drop", bevisbaseret politik, hvorunder de ikke dropper anmeldte sager om vold i hjemmet.

Der var ingen landsdækkende regeringsoplysningsprogrammer designet til at håndtere vold i hjemmet. Selvom mediernes opmærksomhed på vold i hjemmet og overgreb generelt var begrænset, fik mordene på to kvinder af deres partnere i Port Vila betydelig opmærksomhed. I juni døde Alice Karis efter at have pådraget sig hovedskader påført af sin kæreste under et slagsmål, og i august blev Flora Charley fundet død i sit hjem efter at være blevet stukket af hendes partner. I begge tilfælde blev gerningsmændene anholdt og afventer retssag.

Department of Women's Affairs spillede en rolle i implementeringen af ​​familiebeskyttelse. Politiakademiet og den newzealandske regering har undervist politiet i at reagere på vold i hjemmet og sager om seksuelle overgreb.

Ikke -statslige organisationer (NGO'er) spillede en vigtig rolle i at uddanne offentligheden om vold i hjemmet og hjælpe kvinder med at få adgang til det formelle retssystem, men de manglede tilstrækkelige midler til at gennemføre deres programmer fuldt ud.

Anden skadelig traditionel praksis: Sædvanlige brudeprisbetalinger fortsatte med at stige og bidrog til opfattelsen af ​​mandligt ejerskab af kvinder.

Seksuel krænkelse: Loven forbyder ikke seksuel chikane, og det var et problem. Seksuel chikane var udbredt på arbejdspladsen (se afsnit 6.d.).

Tvang i befolkningskontrol: Der var ingen rapporter om tvungen abort, ufrivillig sterilisering eller andre tvangsmæssige befolkningskontrolmetoder. Estimater om mødredødelighed og prævention af prævention er tilgængelige på: www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/monitoring/maternal-mortality-2015/en/.

Forskelsbehandling: Grundloven giver kvinder de samme personlige og religiøse rettigheder som mænd. Love vedrørende ægteskab, strafferetlige procedurer og beskæftigelse fastholder yderligere kvinders rettigheder som lig med mænds. Selvom loven ikke forbyder kvinder at eje eller arve ejendom eller jord, forhindrer traditionen generelt kvinder i at eje jord eller ejendomsarv. Landets nationalitetslov diskriminerer borgermødre, der ikke alene må overføre statsborgerskab til deres børn.

Mens kvinder har lige rettigheder i henhold til loven, opstod de kun langsomt fra en traditionel kultur præget af mandlig dominans, og kvinder oplevede forskelsbehandling i forbindelse med adgang til beskæftigelse, kredit og lønforhold for væsentligt lignende arbejde (se afsnit 7.d.). Institut for Kvinder arbejdede med regionale og internationale organisationer for at øge kvinders adgang til det formelle retssystem og uddanne kvinder om deres rettigheder i henhold til loven.

Børn

Fødselsregistrering: En borgerfar kan overføre statsborgerskab til sit barn uanset hvor barnet er født. En borgerlig enlig mor må ikke overføre statsborgerskab til sit barn, men barnet kan ansøge om statsborgerskab i en alder af 18 år. Denne mangel på statsborgerskab ved fødslen kan føre til, at et barn nægtes pas og andre borgerrettigheder og -tjenester. Forældre registrerede normalt fødslen af ​​et barn med det samme, medmindre fødslen fandt sted i en meget fjerntliggende landsby eller ø. Manglende registrering medfører ikke afslag på offentlige tjenester.

Uddannelse: Regeringen understregede vigtigheden af ​​børns rettigheder og velfærd, men der var betydelige problemer med adgang til uddannelse. Selvom regeringen erklærede en forpligtelse til gratis og universel uddannelse, var skolepenge og vanskelig geografi en barriere for skolebesøg for nogle børn.

Skolegang er ikke obligatorisk. Drenge havde en tendens til at modtage mere uddannelse end piger. Selvom fremmødet var ens i de tidlige primærklasser, gik proportionelt færre piger videre til højere karakterer. Anslået 50 procent af befolkningen var funktionelt analfabeter.

Børnemishandling: Observatører mente ikke, at børnemishandling var omfattende, og regeringen gjorde lidt for at bekæmpe problemet. NGO'er og retshåndhævende myndigheder rapporterede om stigende klager over incest og voldtægt af børn i de seneste år, men der var ingen statistik tilgængelig. Det traditionelle udvidede familiesystem beskytter generelt børn.

Tidligt og tvangsægteskab: Lovlig alder for ægteskab er 21 år, selvom drenge helt ned til 18 år og piger helt ned til 16 år kan gifte sig med forældrenes tilladelse. I landdistrikter og ydre øer giftede nogle børn sig i yngre alder. I 2016 rapporterede UNICEF, at cirka 21 procent af børnene giftede sig før 18 år.

Seksuel udnyttelse af børn: Loven omhandler lovpligtig voldtægt, der giver en maksimumsstraf på fem års fængsel, hvis barnet er ældre end 12 år, men yngre end 15 år, eller 14 års fængsel, hvis barnet er yngre end 12 år. Loven forbyder også kommerciel seksuel udnyttelse af børn, salg af børn og tilbud eller anskaffelse af et barn med henblik på prostitution eller pornografi. Straf til pornografi omfatter op til to års fængsel. Disse love blev håndhævet, men der var ingen straffesager om pornografi i løbet af året.

Børnepornografi er ulovligt. Den maksimale straf er fem års fængsel, hvis barnet er 14 år eller ældre, og syv års fængsel, hvis barnet er yngre end 14 år. I henhold til loven er alderen for samstemmende køn 16 år uanset køn eller seksuel orientering. Nogle børn under 18 år beskæftiger sig med prostitution.

Internationale bortførelser af børn: Landet er ikke part i Haag -konventionen fra 1980 om de civile aspekter af international børnebortførelse. Se Udenrigsministeriets Årsrapport om international bortførelse af forældre til børn på travel.state.gov/content/childabduction/en/legal/compliance.html.

Antisemitisme

Landets jødiske samfund var begrænset til et par udenlandske statsborgere, og der var ingen rapporter om antisemitiske handlinger.

Menneskehandel

Der var ingen bekræftede rapporter i løbet af året om, at landet var en kilde, destination eller transitland for ofre for menneskehandel.

Personer med handicap

Ingen lov forbyder specifikt forskelsbehandling af personer med fysiske, sensoriske, intellektuelle eller psykiske handicap. Selvom bygningsreglerne kræver adgang for personer med handicap i eksisterende og nye faciliteter, kunne de ikke få adgang til de fleste bygninger. Regeringen gennemførte ikke effektivt national politik, der var designet til at beskytte rettighederne for personer med handicap. Regeringen stolede generelt på den traditionelle storfamilie og NGO'er for at yde tjenester og støtte til personer med handicap. Den høje arbejdsløshed i den generelle befolkning kombineret med social stigma knyttet til handicap betød, at få job var tilgængelige for personer med handicap (se afsnit 7.d.). Adgang til tjenester via sundhedsministeriets politik for mental sundhed var meget begrænset. Skoler var generelt ikke tilgængelige for børn med handicap.

Voldshandlinger, diskrimination og andre overgreb baseret på seksuel orientering og kønsidentitet

Der er ingen love, der kriminaliserer seksuel orientering eller seksuel adfærd af samme køn, men der var rapporter om diskrimination og vold mod LGBTI-personer. LGBTI -grupper opererede frit, men der er ingen antidiskrimineringslove for at beskytte dem. I maj blev landets første LGBTI -fortalergruppe officielt registreret som en NGO.

Anden samfundsmæssig vold eller diskrimination

Traditionel tro på trolddom fremkaldte vold mod personer marginaliseret i deres lokalsamfund. Kvinder var ofte mål for muligheder.


  • Gruppe på 77 og Kina
  • Bevægelse uden justering
  • Alliance af små østater
  • Pacific Small Island -udviklingsstater
  • Gruppe af venner
  • Asia Pacific Group

Missionen sigter mod at sikre relevansen af ​​FN og dets organer i et hurtigt skiftende globalt miljø og et forum for dialog i konfliktperioder. Desuden er landets økonomi og levebrød samt i et vist omfang truet af klimaforandringer ligesom alle små øer. Derfor opfordrer Vanuatu til en global indsats for at reducere drivhusgasemissioner og begrænse stigningen i den globale temperatur til langt under 1,5 ° Celsius. Du kan finde mere information om de vigtigste emner for missionen i de tematiske sektioner.

Til venstre: FN Foto: Alfred Carlot, formand for delegationen og førstesekretær Evelyn Adams ved generalforsamlingens femogtredende session (2001).
Til højre: FN Foto: Odo Tevi, ny fast repræsentant for Republikken Vanuatu for De Forenede Nationer, overrækker sine legitimationsoplysninger til generalsekretær Ban Ki-moon (2014).


Afsnit 2. Respekt for borgerlige rettigheder, herunder:

En. Ytringsfrihed, herunder for pressen

Forfatningen giver mulighed for ytringsfrihed, herunder for pressen, og regeringen respekterede generelt denne ret. En uafhængig presse og retsvæsen og et fungerende demokratisk politisk system kombineret til fremme af ytrings- og pressefrihed.

Presse og medier, herunder onlinemedier: Uafhængige medier var aktive og udtrykte en lang række synspunkter.

Vold og chikane: I november, Dan McGarry, en canadisk statsborger, mangeårig bosiddende og redaktør for landets største uafhængige avis, Daglig Post, fortalte medierne, at regeringen havde nægtet at forny sin arbejdstilladelse. Ifølge McGarry hævdede regeringen, at dette var med henblik på at besætte stillingen af ​​nogen fra landet, men McGarry sagde, at premierministeren i juli havde indkaldt ham og forfulgt ham for "negativ rapportering." McGarry mente, at premierministeren specifikt var utilfreds med Daglig Post rapporterede i juli om regeringens samarbejde med Kina om at deportere seks kinesiske statsborgere, hvoraf fire for nylig havde erhvervet Vanuatu -statsborgerskab gennem et program, der skulle tiltrække kinesiske investeringer.

Internets frihed

Regeringen begrænsede eller forstyrrede ikke adgangen til internettet eller censurerede onlineindhold, og der var ingen troværdige rapporter om, at regeringen overvåger privat onlinekommunikation uden passende juridisk myndighed.

Akademisk frihed og kulturelle begivenheder

Der var ingen regeringsbegrænsninger for akademisk frihed eller kulturelle begivenheder.

B. Friheder for fredelig forsamling og forening

Grundloven foreskriver forsamlings- og foreningsfriheder, og regeringen respekterede generelt disse rettigheder.

C. Religionsfrihed

Se Udenrigsministeriets International rapport om religionsfrihed på https://2017-2021.state.gov/religiousfreedomreport/.

D. Bevægelsesfrihed

Grundloven foreskriver fri bevægelighed, udlandsrejser, emigration og hjemsendelse, og regeringen respekterede generelt disse rettigheder.

E. Internt fordrevne

Landet stod over for flere vulkanudbrud, jordskælv, cykloner og tsunami i løbet af året. I august 2018 beordrede premierministeren en obligatorisk evakuering af 10.000 personer truet af et vulkanudbrud på øen Ambae og opfordrede til genbosættelse i evakueringscentre på nærliggende øer. I januar godkendte Ministerrådet en plan for at genoprette tjenester i Ambae. I marts var mere end 4.000 personer vendt tilbage til Ambae. Internt fordrevne klagede over, at det var svært at tjene penge eller få adgang til mad og vand i nogle evakuerede lejre. Der var lignende evakueringer fra øen i 2017, og de fordrevne kunne vende tilbage til deres hjem efter cirka en måned.

F. Beskyttelse af flygtninge

Adgang til asyl: Loven foreskriver ikke tildeling af asyl eller flygtningestatus, men regeringen udviklede et ad hoc -system til beskyttelse af flygtninge og indrømmede midlertidig flygtningestatus og asyl til dem, der søger det, mens de afventer genbosættelse af De Forenede Nationers Kontor Kommissær for flygtninge (UNHCR). Regeringen samarbejdede med UNHCR om beskyttelse og bistand til internt fordrevne personer, flygtninge, asylansøgere, statsløse personer og andre bekymrede personer.

G. Statsløse


Børn af Vanuatu

Over for socioøkonomiske, geografiske og politiske vanskeligheder har Vanuatu problemer med at gennemføre konventionen om barnets rettigheder. På grund af dette er der stadig alvorlige handlinger, der skal træffes, især i spørgsmål om sundhed, uddannelse og misbrug.

Orange niveau: Mærkbare problemer

Befolkning: 261 500
Pop. alder 0-14: 38 %

Forventede levealder: 71,6 år
Dødelighed under 5 år: 23 ‰

Vigtigste problemer for børn i Vanuatu:

Mange traditionelle metoder styrer stadig beboernes liv på øerne Vanuatu, nogle gange i modstrid med internationale menneskerettighedsprincipper.

Nogle ledere på øhavet har en tendens til at favorisere tradition på bekostning af børns rettigheder og gøre indsigelse mod at gøre dem respekteret.

På trods af de seneste forbedringer er national lovgivning og traditionel lovgivning klart ikke i overensstemmelse med bestemmelserne i konventionen om barnets rettigheder. Som en konsekvens opfylder regeringens programmer og tjenester rettet mod børn heller ikke disse krav.

Adgang til sundhedsydelser er et af de største problemer i landet vedrørende børn. Det faktum, at territoriet er opdelt i mange små øer, der er udsat for naturkatastrofer, er en hindring for korrekt gennemførelse af nationale programmer.

Desuden vanskeliggør mangel på infrastruktur, mangel på sundhedspersonale, dårlig kvalitet på sanitetsnetværk og begrænset adgang til drikkevand i mange landsbyer sundhedsvæsenets funktion. Derudover er en generel mangel på viden om, hvordan man opdrager et barn sundt, også meget markant i landdistrikterne.

På grund af alle disse faktorer er spædbarnsdødeligheden relativt høj (16%). For Verdenssundhedsorganisationen er Vanuatu et af de sværeste lande i Stillehavsstaterne, hvor malaria skal bekæmpes.

Malaria forårsager tæt på 20% af dødsfaldene hos børn under 5 år. Desuden er børns overlevelse og udvikling endnu mere truet af akutte luftvejsinfektioner og diarrésygdomme.

Sundhedspolitikker til fordel for børn er ikke tilstrækkelige, især når det drejer sig om ulykker, selvmord, vold og brug af alkohol og tobak. Spredningen af ​​seksuelt overførte sygdomme blandt unge og det forhøjede antal graviditeter blandt unge (anslået til 92%) er også meget bekymrende.

Landsbyernes isolation og fattigdom udgør et stort problem med adgang til uddannelse.

På trods af Vanuatus forpligtelser om at tilbyde obligatorisk, kvalitet og gratis grundskoleundervisning til alle børn inden 2015, er situationen ikke opmuntrende: dårlige læsefærdigheder, høje uddannelsesomkostninger, dårlig undervisningskvalitet, generel mangel på undervisningsmanualer og det stadig utilstrækkelige antal af kvalificerede lærere.

Desuden gør det store antal sprog (80 til 100 lokale sprog, 2 officielle sprog og 1 nationalsprog, Bislama) det ikke lettere. Uddannelse tilbydes faktisk kun på de to officielle sprog, fransk og engelsk, som kun er modersmål for 4% af befolkningen.

Frafaldet er relativt højt, og i 2008 var det kun 38% af de børn, der var indskrevet på gymnasiet, der faktisk var til stede.

Ifølge UNESCO befinder disse unge sig i en meget vanskelig situation: Uden professionel uddannelse kan de ikke have job og har ikke lært den nødvendige praksis for det moderne liv, men fordi uddannelsessystemet trak dem væk fra deres forældres livsstil, gør de ikke det 8217 ved heller ikke, hvordan de skal tilpasse sig det traditionelle landsbyliv.

Stærkt påvirket af et samfund, der traditionelt er domineret af mænd, og på trods af de seneste forbedringer er Vanuatuansk lovgivning stadig meget diskriminerende over for piger og kvinder. For eksempel kan en udenlandsk kvinde, der anmoder om Vanuatuan nationalitet, ikke anmode om det for sine børn på samme tid, mens en mand kan.

Men selv når loven er fair, diskriminerende kulturelle praksisser fortsat til ugunst for piger, der er mindre uddannede end drenge og oftere er ofre for vold. Dette kommer delvist fra troen på, at kvindelig menstruation har forurenende og skadelige virkninger.

Handicappede børns rettigheder er ikke tilstrækkeligt beskyttet i Vanuatu. Programmer (især tidlig diagnose) og tjenester rettet mod disse børn har ikke tilstrækkelige ressourcer til at fungere korrekt. Som en konsekvens er de dårligt integreret i samfundet.

Lovlig ægteskabsalder for piger er 16, mod 18 for drenge. På visse isolerede øer er børn undertiden gift i endnu yngre aldre. På grund af dette er 13% af pigerne under 19 år gamle gift eller bor i forening. Dette fremmer frafald og tidlige graviditeter på bekostning af deres sundhed og uddannelse.

Hvis børnemishandling ikke er et fænomen, der er særlig udbredt i Vanuatu, har regeringen ikke gjort nok for at bekæmpe det. Selvom det er forbudt i skolerne, er brugen af ​​kropsstraf ikke forbudt derhjemme.

Nogle traditionelle og kulturelle praksisser tilskynder det endda på en generel måde i samfundet, herunder i retssystemet.

Kvinder og piger er især ramt af vold. Skikken, hvor den kommende mand bringer en medgift til pigens familie i bytte for ægteskab, tilskynder til en kvindes opfattelse som et objekt, der skal købes. Det retfærdiggør ofte vold i samfundets øjne, selvom loven ikke betragter dette som en acceptabel undskyldning.

Vold i familien og tilfælde af mishandling og misbrug, herunder seksuelt misbrug, mod kvinder og børn efterforskes derfor ikke ordentligt og straffes ikke passende. Børn, der er ofre for vold, understøttes ikke ordentligt, hverken under retssager eller under deres sociale reintegration.

I Vanuatu betragtes incest stadig som en overtrædelse for piger i alderen 15 år eller ældre.

Det betyder, at en ung pige, der bliver seksuelt misbrugt af en forælder, vil blive behandlet som skyldig af loven og ikke som et offer.

Denne behandling afholder børn fra at rapportere aggression og hindrer enhver erstatning for forbrydelser.

Børn i Vanuatu begynder generelt at arbejde i en meget ung alder, hovedsageligt på grund af begrænset adgang til uddannelse. Loven forbyder tvangsarbejde til børn under 12 år, undtagen i familiebrug, hvor mange af dem hjælper deres forældre.

På grund af denne lave aldersgrænse og undtagelse arbejder mange børn under forhold, der er upassende for deres unge alder.

Den lovlige minimumsalder for strafansvar er fastsat til 10 år, en grænse alt for lav sammenlignet med de 15, der anbefales af internationale dokumenter.

Derudover er retsprocedurer, der gælder for mindreårige, ikke i overensstemmelse med de relevante internationale normer. Juridiske fagfolk og retshåndhævelse mangler ressourcer og er ikke tilstrækkeligt uddannede til korrekt at tage hensyn til børns specifikke behov.

Desuden går mange landsbyer ind for at løse forbrydelser og konflikter på traditionel vis (kastom faen). På grund af dette er det ikke ualmindeligt, at klager indgivet til politiet senere trækkes tilbage efter til tider indgreb fra en landsbyleder.

Disse traditionelle domme er ikke altid fair og tager ikke korrekt hensyn til børns specifikke behov.

Sædvanlige love, der stadig er gældende på øerne i Vanuatu -skærgården, tillader undertiden endda børn at blive udvekslet eller givet som erstatning under styringen af ​​en konflikt.

Denne udveksling ses som et aktiv for barnet, der normalt ikke er afskåret fra sin naturlige familie, fordi han befinder sig hos en stor udvidet familie og derfor har større beskyttelse. Denne skik fremmer imidlertid synet på børn som objekter og kan forstyrre deres rette udvikling.


Taler med Vanuatu Human Rights Coalitions Anne Pakoa: “En stemme stærkere end nogensinde ”

Anne Pakoa er en vokalfigur i Vanuatus civilsamfund. I lyset af de aktuelle forhandlinger mellem EU og lande i Afrika, Vestindien og Stillehavet udveksler Pakoa synspunkter med CONCORD om Cotonou -aftalen, civilsamfundets rum, klimaindsats og kvinders rettigheder.

Hvad drejer det sig om?

Det Cotonou -partnerskabsaftale (CPA), underskrevet i 2000 af Den Europæiske Unions medlemsstater og 78 lande i Afrika, Vestindien og Stillehavet (AVS), var øjenåbnende af flere årsager. Især CPA var fremadrettede rum for civilsamfundet (CS) og deltagelse i denne ramme: den anerkendte et bredt sæt aktører, der gik ud over aftalens underskrivende stater, herunder anerkendelse af civilsamfundets forskellige roller.

Da Cotonou -partnerskabsaftalen ophører i 2020, forhandlinger om en ny aftale er i øjeblikket i fuld gang. Disse forhandlinger giver rigelige grunde til, at CONCORD forsøger at påvirke den nye aftale mellem EU og AVS -lande til gavn for alle mennesker og planeten.

Anne Pakoa: Vanuatus menneskerettighedsforkæmper

Anne Pakoa er et kendt navn i Pacific -regionens civilsamfundsverden. Som sekretær for Vanuatu Menneskerettighedskoalition er hun både næstformand for styregruppen Net-State Actors Network i African-Caribbean-Pacific (ACP) samt en del af Civil Society Forum. Klimaretfærdighed, civilsamfundsdeltagelse og kvinders rettigheder er kernen i fru Pakoa ’s daglige forretning. Grunde nok til, at vi kan samle hendes indsigt i betydningen af ​​forholdet mellem EU og AVS efter Cotonou.

Cotonou -aftalen: Tid til refleksion

Når Cotonou -partnerskabsaftalen (CPA) er ved at være slut, benytter vi lejligheden til at se tilbage på de sidste 19 års samarbejde. En stor succes for CPA var dens anerkendelse af civilsamfundsorganisationer (CSO'er) som afgørende aktører i de politiske, økonomiske og sociale dimensioner. Anne Pakoa giver et konkret eksempel på, hvad denne proces med anerkendelse af CSO'er betød i hendes region:

En organisation, jeg stiftede tilbage i 2003, kaldet Annes Christian Community Health School and Nursing Services, modtog et EU/NSA-tilskud i 2008. Vi modtog en lille minibus til at levere mobile sygeplejeydelser til lokalsamfund, der har svært ved at få adgang til medicinsk behandling og sundhedsydelser. Med minibilen kunne vi nå ud til kvinder og piger med behov for prævention samt hjælpe dem, der ikke havde råd til rejseomkostninger til hovedsygehuset.

Det er disse erfaringer, der får Pakoa til at love om bevarelse af udviklingssamarbejde med civilsamfund i den næste EU/AVS -aftale, som ” kapacitetsopbygning er meget vigtig for os og dem, der arbejder til støtte for stater i leveringsprogrammer og tjenester til samfundene.

I betragtning af al deres merværdi har CSO'er, herunder CONCORD, udtalt, at det ikke er nok blot at erkende civilsamfundets betydning for at sikre deres meningsfulde deltagelse på alle niveauer. Faktisk med CPA, der viser nogle strukturelle svagheder , skal den fremtidige EU/AVS -partnerskabsaftale indføre konkrete mekanismer for virkelig at sikre civilsamfunds engagement og økonomisk støtte til CSO'er. Anne Pakoa:

Jeg finder mange svagheder med hensyn til staternes samarbejde med CSO'er og hvordan den kontinuerlige finansieringsbistand fra EDF gennem udviklingssamarbejde implementeres. Jeg håber virkelig, at EU kan erkende betydningen af ​​de roller, civilsamfundsorganisationer spiller for at nå regionale og nationale mål gennem EU -finansieringsinitiativer.

Civilsamfundets deltagelse: Sikring af vores plads

Det er ikke kun de strukturelle svagheder ved CPA, der kan stå i vejen for meningsfuld civilsamfundsdeltagelse. Plads til civilsamfundsorganisationer til at overvåge og påvirke beslutningstagningen krymper på verdensplan, herunder i AVS -lande. Som den internationale tjeneste for menneskerettigheder påpeger, systematisk undertrykkelse af menneskerettighedsforkæmpere er udbredt og rækker fra at indføre bureaukratiske forhindringer til chikane og vilkårlige begrænsninger.

I lyset af denne udvikling fremsatte CONCORD konkrete forslag for at sikre civilsamfundets rum inden for rammerne af EU-AVS.

Mens Anne Pakao udtaler, at hun i Vanuatu nyder " fuld anerkendelse og støtte fra regeringen ”, Opfordrer hun CSO’er til at tage op til deres globale udfordringer og bruge en” stærkere stemme end nogensinde for at påvirke ændringer til fælles bedste.

Anne Pakoa taler for Civil Society

Dialing Up Dialogue: Sådan kommer du til græsroden

Landene i Afrika, Vestindien og Stillehavet omfatter 78 stater, hvilket afspejler en stor mangfoldighed af udfordringer, prioriteter og ambitioner. Det er derfor ikke tilstrækkeligt, at EU/AVS er enige om civilsamfundsdeltagelse på internationalt plan: dialogen mellem regeringer og civilsamfund skal være styrket ind i græsrødderne . Som CONCORDs anbefalinger antyder, kan dette gøres ved at indføre stående civilsamfundsorganer på regionalt niveau (kapitel I og II).

Da hun blev spurgt, hvordan Vanuatu, en stat bestående af en række forskellige øer, kan fremme decentralisering af civilsamfundets deltagelse, forklarer Anne Pakao:

For nylig lancerede Vanuatu gennem departementet for lokale myndigheder den første NGO -politik nogensinde for at understøtte levering af tjenester fra staten og nå gennem græsrødderne. Denne politik komplimenterer Vanuatus decentraliseringshandling for at sikre social og økonomisk retfærdighed for alle på alle niveauer i staten dybt inde i vores landsbyer.

Opskalering af klimaindsatsen

Som repræsentant for Stillehavsregionen er Anne Pakao vokal på et af de mest presserende spørgsmål i vores tid. Til modvirke klimaændringer , siger hun, skal EU og AVS “ hurtigt og konkret skalere deres klimahandlinger inden for 10 år i overensstemmelse med Stillehavets prioriteter og føre det globale samfund til at begrænse stigningen i den globale temperatur under 1,5C.
Mens hun forbereder sig på bedre at styre virkningen af ​​klimaændringer og katastrofer på lokalt plan ved at forbedre lokalsamfundenes modstandsdygtighed over for naturfarer, opfordrer fru Pakao også til, at en tab og skade (L & ampD) søjle indgår i det næste EU/AVS -partnerskab.

CONCORDs anbefalinger til den næste EU/AVS -aftale om miljømæssig bæredygtighed (kapitel 4) skal give en helhedsorienteret tilgang til klimaindsatsen , og til "udnytte tidligere vellykket samarbejde i internationale fora, f.eks. ved vedtagelsen af ​​Parisaftalen.

Håndhævelse af kvinders rettigheder

Som en åbenhjertig fortaler for kvinders rettigheder ser Anne Pakao store mangler inden for sit land med hensyn til kønsdiskrimination .

En stor udfordring med at fremme fred og sikkerhed i Vanuatu er den sociale norm, at kvinder klassificeres som 2. klasses borgere! I de sidste 12 år har kvinder ikke haft mulighed for at deltage i Vanuatus nationale parlament. At få ledende stillinger i beskæftigelsesområdet er stadig en udfordring for kvinder. Spørgsmål om analfabetisme er høje i landdistrikterne og de fjerneste områder, hvilket fører til mangel på tillid hos unge mødre og piger til at søge job og skabe deres egen indkomst. Når piger er analfabeter, befinder de sig også i vanskelige situationer med at træffe de rigtige valg i livet, såsom at udvikle sig akademisk og sikre lønnede job. Resultaterne af en undersøgelse foretaget af Vanuatu Women Center viser høj diskrimination mod kvinder og piger i følelsesmæssig vold.

Pakao opfordrer til, at EU-AVS-partnerskabet respekterer kvinders rettigheder og giver muligheder for politisk engagement. En af hendes store bekymringer er retten for kvinder til at deltage i Vanuatus nationale parlament. Derudover beder Pakao om at give piger flere læringsmuligheder og finansiere CSO'er til at spore og rapportere om fremskridt.

CONCORD har lagt sine visioner for den fremtidige partnerskabsaftale mellem EU og AVS og opfordret til en styrket social dialog med små iværksættere og kvindeorganisationer.

Hvad er det næste?

Det tredje møde den EU- og AVS -chefs forhandlere Neven Mimica og Robert Dussey fandt sted den 4. april 2019 i N ’djamena, Tchad. Dette møde startede officielt den anden fase af forhandlingerne og bygger på den aftalte fremtidige struktur for rammerne efter Cotonou. Denne struktur vil være baseret på et fundament (fælles for alle underskrivelseslande) og tre regionale søjler (EU-Afrika, EU-Caribien, EU-Stillehavsområdet). Selv om der stadig er aftaler om nogle af de prioriteringer, fonden vil omfatte, er de to chefforhandlere i gang med at tage parallelle samtaler med regionale partnere allerede. Et sådant møde fandt sted i Samoa mellem EU -kommissær Neven Mimica, Robert Dussey og deres partnere i Stillehavet. Ved den lejlighed offentliggjorde Pacific CSO'er deres holdningspapir "Pacific CSO-holdning til Post-Cotonou-aftalen", der benyttede Pacific Civil Society mulighed for at hæve sin stemme.

På samme måde fandt møde EU-Caribien sted den 15. april, mens de regionale møder mellem EU og Afrika skulle finde sted den 20. maj.

Cotonou-partnerskabsaftalen ophører ved udgangen af ​​februar 2020, så den nye EU-AVS-aftale bør færdiggøres og ratificeres i begyndelsen af ​​marts samme år. En meget ambitiøs plan.

Taler med én stemme: AVS -civilsamfundsorganisationer står sammen under en høring den 8. marts 2019.

CONCORD ’s positioner

Som nævnt i hele denne artikel fastlægger CONCORD, den europæiske NGO-konføderation for nødhjælp og udvikling, hvad den mener, at det næste partnerskab mellem EU og landene i Afrika og Caribien og Stillehavet bør indebære. For at finde ud af om CONCORDs ideer til et partnerskab med fokus på bæredygtig udvikling og menneskerettigheder og Forbundets anbefalinger til en mere meningsfuld civilsamfundsdeltagelse, er du velkommen til at læse videre!


Vanuatus premierminister opfordrer til FN -aktion mod Vestpapua

Vanuatus premierminister har igen presset FN's generalforsamling på grund af krænkelser af menneskerettighederne i Vestpapua.

Charlot Salwai Foto: UNGA

Under sin tale i New York beklagede Charlot Salwai, hvordan nogle stillehavsområder endnu ikke skal bryde kolonialismens lænker.

Salwai citerede Frankrigs territorier i Ny Kaledonien og Fransk Polynesien samt indonesisk styrede Vestpapua.

He called on the administering powers to respect UN processes and ensure people in these territories can have their self-determination views heard.

Mr Salwai called for use of the UN system to find solutions to violations of West Papuans' human rights.

"The resolution of the leaders of the Pacific Islands Forum calls on the office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights to visit West Papua to conduct an assessment based on concrete proof regarding the human rights situation."

Rayyanul Sangadji, a junior Indonesian diplomat from Ambon, Maluku, exercised the country's right of reply to Vanuatu's statement.

"As an Indonesian with Melanesian roots, I can tell you we do not like to be clustered, categorised, or worse, divided by another, faraway country," he said.


Indonesia lashes out at Vanuatu over West Papua at the UN

Indonesia has lashed out at Vanuatu for what it describes as the Melanesian country's "excessive and unhealthy obsession" about West Papua.

The testy comments came in Indonesia's right of reply to a statement by Vanuatu's prime minister Bob Loughman at the United Nations General Assembly.

A diplomat from Indonesia's permanent mission at the United Nations, Silvany Austin Pasaribu. Photo: UN News

It's become an annual scrap at the general assembly, with Vanuatu raising concern about a lack of action by Indonesian authorities in addressing human rights abuses against West Papuans. In exchange, Indonesian diplomats slam Vanuatu for interfering in its domestic affairs.

Like other world leaders speaking at the 75th sessions of the United Nations General Assembly, Bob Loughman sent his speech in a pre-recorded video. He warned that the international community had been taking a selective approach to addressing human rights violations.

"The indigenous people of West Papua continue to suffer from human rights abuses," he stated in his speech.

"Last year leaders from the Pacific Islands Forum respectfully called on the Indonesian government to allow the United Nations Office of the Human Rights Commissioner to visit West Papua province. To date there has been little progress on this front.

"I therefore call on the Indonesian government to please heed the previous call of Pacific leaders."

A young diplomat from Indonesia's permanent mission at the United Nations, Silvany Austin Pasaribu, exercised her country's right of reply, accusing Vanuatu of failing to respect the UN charter's principle about non-interference in the domestic affairs of other countries.

"So until you have done so, please keep the sermon to yourself," she said.

"It is shameful that this single country continues to have excessive and unhealthy obsession about how Indonesia should govern itself. You are no representation of the people of Papua, and stop fantasising of being one."

A pre-recorded speech by Vanuatu prime minister Bob Loughman plays via video at the UN General Assembly's 75th session. Photo: UN News

She pointed out that unlike Indonesia, Vanuatu has not ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.

Asserting that West Papua's status as part of Indonesia was "final", the diplomat cited her President Joko Widodo's call for mutually beneficial approaches to global challenges.

"But this ignorant country (Vanuatu) chooses the contrary. At times of an emergency health crisis and great economic adversity, it prefers to instil enmity and sew division by guising [disguising] their advocacy for separatism with flowery human rights concern," Austin Pasaribu said, adding that Indonesia was committed to human rights.

While Vanuatu and Indonesia are at odds over West Papua, the statements of their national leaders at the general assembly both underlined the importance of multi-lateralism.


U.S. Department of State

This is the basic text view. SWITCH NOW to the new, more interactive format.

Vanuatu is a multiparty parliamentary democracy with a population of approximately 218,000. The head of government, Prime Minister Edward Natapei, governed with a seven-party coalition. The most recent elections, held on September 2, were considered generally free and fair. Civilian authorities generally maintained effective control of the security forces however, police officials on occasion acted peremptorily or at the direction of senior politicians.

The government generally respected the human rights of its citizens, but there were problems in some areas. These included poor prison conditions, arrests without warrants, an extremely slow judicial process, government corruption, and violence and discrimination against women.

RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS

Section 1 Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom From:

en. Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life

There were no reports that the government or its agents committed arbitrary or unlawful killings.

There were no developments in the case of the March 2007 mob violence in which three persons were killed and 20 injured in the Blacksands and Anabrou squatter settlements in Port Vila. In October 2007 the Vanuatu Daily Post newspaper reported that the criminal cases regarding the incident were pending in the Supreme Court. During the year the attorney general recalled a public report on the case released by a commission of inquiry. Court hearings were scheduled for February, but at year's end no further information was available.

There were no reports of politically motivated disappearances.

c. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

The constitution prohibits such practices, and there were no reports that government officials employed torture however, there were reports of police abuse of criminal suspects. A report was scheduled for release in December on the conditions of the main jail in Port Vila, where prisoners allegedly leaked information about conditions however, by year's end no information had been made public.

Prison and Detention Center Conditions

Conditions at the three prisons in Port Vila improved slightly during the year with foreign donor funding but remained below international standards. Security at all facilities was poor, and there were frequent prisoner escapes. Male inmates were incarcerated in overcrowded facilities. Persons deemed mentally unfit to stand trial were held with the general prison population. Juveniles were held together with adults.

The government permitted prison visits by independent human rights observers. For the first time, ballot boxes were brought into the prisons for the national elections, and inmates were allowed to cast their votes.

d. Arbitrary Arrest or Detention

The constitution prohibits arbitrary arrest and detention, and the government generally observed these prohibitions.

Role of the Police and Security Apparatus

The commissioner of police heads the police force, including a police maritime wing, the paramilitary Vanuatu Mobile Force, Immigration Department, National Disaster Management Office, and National Fire Service. Police effectiveness was hampered by a lack of resources and involvement in ancillary activities such as search and rescue operations, immigration, and national disaster response. During the year foreign assistance was provided to address some of the problems confronting the force. Actions taken under the assistance projects included recruitment of new officers, establishment of additional police posts on outer islands and in rural areas, and police building repairs and maintenance.

Corruption and impunity were not major problems however, there were instances of corruption and instances in which police acted without proper authorization at the behest of politicians. On October 7, four police officers suspended in 2007 for their implication in a fraud case returned to full duty pending the return to the country of an Indo-Fijian, who was the prime suspect.

A warrant issued by a court is required for an arrest however, police made a small number of arrests without warrants during the year. The constitutional provision that suspects must be informed of the charges against them generally was observed in practice.

A system of bail operated effectively however, some persons not granted bail spent lengthy periods in pretrial detention due to judicial inefficiency. The ratio of pretrial detainees to the total prison population was relatively high. Judges, prosecutors, and police complained about large case backlogs due to a lack of resources and limited numbers of qualified judges and prosecutors. Years could pass before a case was brought to trial. Detainees were allowed prompt access to counsel and family members. A public defender's office provided counsel to indigent defendants.

e. Denial of Fair Public Trial

The constitution provides for an independent judiciary, and the government generally respected judicial independence in practice.

Magistrates' courts deal with most routine legal matters. Island courts are present at the local level, with limited jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters. The Supreme Court, an intermediate-level court, has unlimited jurisdiction over criminal and civil matters and considers appeals from the magistrates' courts. The Appeals Court is the highest appellate court. Judges cannot be removed without cause.

The constitution provides for the right to a fair trial, and an independent judiciary generally enforced this right. The judicial system is derived from British common law. Judges conduct trials and render verdicts there are no juries. The courts uphold constitutional provisions for a fair public trial, a presumption of innocence until guilt is proven, a prohibition against double jeopardy, a right to counsel, a right to judicial determination of the validity of arrest or detention, a right to question witnesses and access government-held evidence, and a right of appeal. The law extends these rights to all citizens. The public defender's office provides free legal counsel to indigent defendants.

Political Prisoners and Detainees

There were no reports of political prisoners or detainees.

Civil Judicial Procedures and Remedies

There is an independent and impartial judiciary for civil matters, including for human rights violations however, police were reluctant to enforce domestic court orders.
f. Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or Correspondence

The constitution prohibits such actions, and the government generally respected these prohibitions in practice.

Section 2 Respect for Civil Liberties, Including:

en. Freedom of Speech and Press

The constitution provides for freedom of speech and of the press, and the government generally respected these rights in practice.

There were no government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports that the government monitored e-mail or Internet chat rooms. Individuals and groups could engage in the peaceful expression of views via the Internet, including by e-mail however, cost and lack of infrastructure limited public access to the Internet.

Academic Freedom and Cultural Events

There were no government restrictions on academic freedom or cultural events.

b. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association

The constitution provides for freedom of assembly and association, and the government generally respected these rights in practice.

In contrast with 2007, the government did not prohibit meetings of citizens in public.

The constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the government generally respected this right in practice. The government provided some financial assistance for the construction of churches affiliated with member denominations of the Vanuatu Christian Council, provided grants to church operated schools, and paid teachers' salaries at church operated schools in existence since the country's independence. These benefits were not available to non Christian religious organizations.

Government schools scheduled weekly religious education classes conducted by representatives of Council churches. Students whose parents did not wish them to attend the classes were excused. Non Christian religions were not permitted to give religious instruction in public schools.

Societal Abuses and Discrimination

There were no reports of societal abuses or discrimination against religious groups, although some churches and individuals objected to missionary activities of nontraditional religious groups. The country's Jewish community was limited to a few expatriates, and there were no reports of anti-Semitic acts.

For a more detailed discussion, see the 2008 International Religious Freedom Report at 2009-2017.state.gov/j/drl/irf/rpt.

d. Freedom of Movement, Internally Displaced Persons, Protection of Refugees, and Stateless Persons

The constitution provides for freedom of movement within the country, foreign travel, emigration, and repatriation, and the government generally respected these rights in practice. The government had no association with the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees.

The law does not address forced exile, but the government did not employ it.

The law does not provide for the granting of asylum or refugee status in accordance with the 1951 UN Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 protocol, and the government has not established a system for providing protection to refugees. The government did not grant refugee status or asylum. In practice the government did not provide protection against the expulsion or return of refugees to countries where their lives or freedom would be threatened.

Section 3 Respect for Political Rights: The Right of Citizens to Change Their Government

The constitution provides citizens the right to change their government peacefully, and citizens exercised this right in practice through periodic, free, and fair elections held on the basis of universal suffrage.

Elections and Political Participation

The most recent national parliamentary elections were held in September and were considered generally free and fair. Allegations of bribery and electoral fraud were raised against Foreign Minister Bakoa Kaltongga, two other politicians, and a former ambassador to the UN. The allegation against them was that some voters were turned away from polling booths because their names were not on the roll. According to the Vanuatu Daily Post, the chief justice agreed to hear an election petition, but at year's end no date had been set for the hearing.

Political parties could operate without restriction or outside interference.

Traditional attitudes regarding male dominance and customary familial roles hampered women's participation in economic and political life. There were two women in the 52-member parliament. There were no women in the cabinet.

There were no minorities (non-Melanesians) in parliament or in the cabinet.

Government Corruption and Transparency

The law provides criminal penalties for official corruption however, the government did not implement the law effectively, and officials often engaged in corrupt practices with impunity.

There were reports of government corruption during the year. The law provides for the appointment of public servants on the basis of merit however, in practice political interference at times hampered the effective operation of the civil service.

An Ombudsman Commission report released in July revealed allegations of corruption and fraud in the Vatuman Bay land deal. A new member of parliament (MP) and a former lord mayor of Port Vila were allegedly implicated in the case. At year's end the case was pending further action by the Public Prosecutor's Office.

In 2007 three People's Progressive Party (PPP) MPs and a former senior official in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs were charged with forgery and theft in connection with a large-scale fraud scheme involving electoral development funds. The motion for action stated that the MPs brought disrepute to parliament for fraudulent use of public funds. The three MPs were suspended from parliament for six months.

Public officials are subject to a leadership code of conduct, which includes financial disclosure requirements. The Ombudsman's Office and Auditor General's Office are key government agencies responsible for combating government corruption.

No law provides for public access to government information. In practice governmental response to requests for information from the media was inconsistent.

Section 4 Governmental Attitude Regarding International and Nongovernmental Investigation of Alleged Violations of Human Rights

A number of domestic and international human rights groups operated without government restriction, investigating and publishing their findings on human rights cases. Government officials often were cooperative and responsive to their views.

The president appoints a government ombudsman to a five-year term in consultation with other political leaders. Since its establishment, the Ombudsman's Office has issued a number of reports critical of government institutions and officials. However, it did not have adequate resources or independent power to prosecute, and the results of its investigations may not be used as evidence in court proceedings. Cases reported to the ombudsman and deemed to be valid were referred to the Public Prosecutor's Office for further action.

Section 5 Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

The law prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, place of origin, language, or sex however, women remained victims of discrimination in the tradition-based society.

Violence against women, particularly domestic violence, was common, although no accurate statistics existed. Although rape is a crime, with a maximum penalty of life imprisonment, spousal rape is not cited specifically in the law, and police frequently were reluctant to intervene in what were considered domestic matters.

On June 19, parliament passed a Family Protection Act that covers domestic violence, women's rights, children's rights, and family rights. Violators could face prison terms of up to five years or pay a fine of up to 100,000 vatu (approximately $900) or both. Most cases of violence against women, including rape, went unreported because women, particularly in rural areas, were ignorant of their rights or feared further abuse. There were no government programs to address domestic violence, and media attention to the abuse was limited. Churches and other nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) operated facilities for abused women. NGOs such as the National Council of Women and the Vanuatu Women's Center also played an important role in educating the public about domestic violence but did not have sufficient funding to implement their programs fully.

Prostitution is illegal and was not regarded as a serious problem. However, on March 4, the Vanuatu Daily Post reported that "practices of prostitution" were increasing. The Protection Project noted that the number of young women and girls turning to prostitution as a result of poverty was rising in Port Vila.

Sexual harassment is not illegal and was a problem.

While women have equal rights under the law, they were only slowly emerging from a traditional culture characterized by male dominance, a general reluctance to educate women, and a widespread belief that women should devote themselves primarily to childbearing. The majority of women entered into marriage through "bride-price payment," a practice that encouraged men to view women as property. Women also were barred by tradition from land ownership. Many female leaders viewed village chiefs as major obstacles to social, political, and economic rights for women. Women interested in running for public office received encouragement from the Vanuatu Council of Women.

The government stressed the importance of children's rights and welfare, but there were significant problems in education. Although there is a free and universal education policy, all children pay school fees, which served as a barrier to education. School attendance is not compulsory. Less than 35 percent of all children advanced beyond elementary school due to a shortage of schools and teachers beyond grade six. Boys tended to receive more education than did girls. Although attendance rates were similar in the early primary grades, fewer girls advanced to the higher grades. A significant portion of the population, perhaps as high as 50 percent, was functionally illiterate.

Child abuse was not believed to be extensive however, the government did little to combat the problem. NGOs and law enforcement agencies reported increased complaints of incest and rape of children in recent years, but no statistics were available. Children generally were protected within the traditional extended family system. Members of the extended family played an active role in a child's development. Virtually no children were homeless or abandoned.

The legal age for marriage is 21, although boys between 18 and 21 and girls between 16 and 21 may marry with parental permission. In rural areas and some outer islands, some children married at younger ages.

The law does not specifically prohibit trafficking in persons however, there were no reports that persons were trafficked to, from, through, or within the country.

The State Department&rsquos annual Trafficking in Persons Report can be found at 2009-2017.state.gov/j/tip.

Persons with Disabilities

There is no law specifically prohibiting discrimination against persons with physical or mental disabilities. There is a national policy designed to protect the rights of persons with disabilities, but the government did not implement it effectively. There were no special programs to assist persons with disabilities and no legislation mandating access to buildings for them. Their protection and care were left to the traditional extended family and NGOs. Due to a high rate of unemployment, few jobs were available for persons with disabilities. Persons with mental illness generally did not receive specialized care members of their extended families usually attended to them.

Most of the population is Melanesian. Small minorities of Chinese, Fijians, Vietnamese, Tongans, and Europeans generally were concentrated in two towns and on a few plantations. Most of the land belongs to indigenous tribes and cannot be sold, although prime real estate was increasingly leased to others. Within the limits of this system of land tenure, there generally were no reports of discrimination against ethnic minorities however, only indigenous farmers may legally grow kava, a native herb, for export.

Other Societal Abuses and Discrimination

There were no reports of societal violence or discrimination against homosexuals, nor were there any such reports against persons with HIV/AIDS.

en. The Right of Association

The law provides all workers with the right to organize and join unions, and workers exercised this right in practice. Approximately 15,000 persons participated in the formal economy as wage earners. Combined union membership in the private and public sectors was approximately 1,900. The two existing trade unions, the Vanuatu Teacher's Union and the Vanuatu National Worker's Union, were independent of the government and grouped under an umbrella organization, the Vanuatu Council of Trade Unions. The high percentage (approximately 70 percent) of the population engaged in subsistence agriculture and fishing precluded extensive union activity. Unions require government permission to affiliate with international labor federations, but the government has not denied any union such permission.

Workers have the right to strike, and this right was exercised in practice. The law prohibits retaliation for legal strikes. In the case of private-sector employees, complaints of violations are referred to the Department of Labor for conciliation and arbitration. In the public sector, the Public Service Commission handles complaints of violations. Unions are required by law to give 30 days' notice of intent to strike and to provide a list of the names of potential strikers.

b. The Right to Organize and Bargain Collectively

Unions exercised the right to organize and bargain collectively. They negotiated wages and conditions directly with management. If the two sides cannot agree, the matter is referred to a three member arbitration board appointed by the minister of home affairs. The board consists of one representative from organized labor, one from management, and the senior magistrate of the magistrates' courts. While a dispute is before the board, labor may not strike and management may not dismiss union employees. However, unions and management generally reached agreement on wages without arbitration.

While the law does not require union recognition, it prohibits antiunion discrimination once a union is recognized. Complaints of antiunion discrimination are referred to the Department of Labor.

There are no export processing zones.

c. Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory Labor

The constitution prohibits forced or compulsory labor, including by children, and there were no reports that such practices occurred.

d. Prohibition of Child Labor and Minimum Age for Employment

The law prohibits children under age 12 from working outside family-owned agricultural production, where many children assisted their parents. The employment of children from 12 to 18 years of age is restricted by occupational category and conditions of labor, including employment in the shipping industry and nighttime employment. The Department of Labor effectively enforced these laws.

e. Acceptable Conditions of Work

In October the Department of Labor increased the minimum wage to 26,000 vatu (approximately $245) per month. The minimum wage did not provide a decent standard of living for an urban worker and family. However, most families were not dependent solely on wages for their livelihood, supplementing their incomes through subsistence farming. Various laws regulated benefits such as sick leave, annual vacations, and other conditions of employment, such as a 44-hour maximum workweek that included at least one 24-hour rest period. The Employment Act provides for a premium of 50 to 75 percent over the normal rate of pay for overtime work.

The Employment Act, enforced by the Department of Labor, includes provisions for safety standards. Workers have the right to remove themselves from dangerous work situations without jeopardy to their continued employment. However, the safety and health law was inadequate to protect workers engaged in logging, agriculture, construction, and manufacturing, and the single inspector attached to the Department of Labor could not enforce the law fully. Laws on working conditions and safety standards apply equally to foreign workers and citizens.


The Pacific will be launching the ‘Pacific Principles’ on National Mechanisms for Implementation, Reporting and Follow-Up (NMIRFs) at a virtual side event of the 43 rd Human Rights Council.

The event will be the conclusion to a process that began back in April 2019 in Nadi, Fiji whereby the Pacific region was the first to be presented with an opportunity to hold a collective forum on NMIRFs.

Around the world, states have increasingly recognised the struggle to effectively implement their human rights commitments and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) due to their sheer volume and the concept of NMIRFs and the role it can play in the implementation agenda has been a subject of discussion internationally for some time.

The launch of the ‘Pacific Principles’ represents a significant achievement for this region in developing a guiding document for NMIRFs towards the effective implementation of human rights and SDGs– a step forwards that is of great global interest and which can be used to inform the establishment of such mechanisms worldwide.

The Implementation Gap and emergence of NMIRFs

Until relatively recently the ‘implementation gap’ remained an unspoken concept. This notion arose from years of international standard-setting efforts that were not met with a similar devotion to understanding how these standards would be put into practice at the national level.

The Pacific Island Countries (PICs) have been particularly affected in terms of implementation, with limited financial and human resources and geographical challenges to overcome. Across the world, an ad hoc approach to implementation was commonplace as was a perceived ‘reporting burden’ arising from this ineffective approach.

According to Fiji’s Permanent Representative to the Human Rights Council in Geneva Her Excellency Nazhat Shameem “States have begun to build a new global implementation agenda. The keystone of this agenda is the evolution of a strong and sustainable State mechanism for implementation, reporting and follow up. Such a mechanism helps to build national resilience, it narrows the implementation gap, it contributes to the prevention of human rights violations and it eases the reporting burden for States".

Out of this context ‘National Mechanisms for Implementation, Reporting and Follow-Up’ organically began to evolve in various countries where the ‘gap’ was recognised. Often known as ‘Human Rights Committees’ or ‘Taskforces’ these bodies are tasked with coordinating and tracking implementation at the domestic level.

The Secretary of the Kiribati Ministry of Justice, Mr Birimaaka Tekanane highlighted “I think when we look at human rights … yes, it’s a challenge for small island States, in particular with limited resources and limited capacity”.

“We established what we call the Kiribati National Human Rights Taskforce and that has become like a working group that tries to progress all these outstanding reports and implement most of the activities,” Mr Tekanane said.

NMIRFs can take a number of different forms from a single government ministry body to a stand-alone government-funded institution. The most common, particularly in the Pacific, is the middle ground of a standing inter-ministerial committee, which also facilitates the participation of civil society, the NHRI, parliamentarians and other implementation actors.

The Chairperson of the Vanuatu National Human Rights Committee Ms Angeline Dovo shared that “For Vanuatu our National Human Rights Committee was established by a Statutory Order made by the Prime Minister under the Government Act in 2014.

“So I see that as a big advantage for Vanuatu because we have a national mechanism that would assist the government to ensure that it implements the provisions of the convention and also to ensure that the government provides reports under each convention as required by the Human Rights Council,” Ms Dovo added.

Nadi Dialogue & the Pacific Process

In April 2019, the Government of Fiji, in partnership with SPC RRRT and Universal Rights Group, hosted the ‘Nadi Dialogue’ bringing together ten PICs, other small island states, Australia and New Zealand to share their implementation challenges and respective responses, including through the establishment of NMIRFs.

Over two days government representatives discussed their experiences out of which a strong sense of solidarity and commonality emerged. The challenges being faced were largely the same – an overwhelming amount of overlapping human rights recommendations and SDG indicators, resource constraints, staff turnover and competing priorities, to name but a few.

During the dialogue, it became clear that from the early days of NMIRF establishment in the Pacific a set of principles of practice had begun to emerge that were proving to be effective in addressing these challenges.

According Ms Peseta Simi, CEO of the Ministry of Foreign and International Trade and Chairperson of Samoa’s Human Rights Taskforce, having the Taskforce helps facilitate Samoa’s government agencies working together to implement outstanding human rights commitments.

“2016 was the second time that we had presented our Universal Periodic Review report to the Human Rights Council. Following that, we came back home and established the Human Rights Task Force,” Ms Simi adds.

“Since then, we have been following this work plan…it really facilitates how we get our lead agencies together in order to be able to assess some of the outstanding things that we need to do. That's why it's important to have the monitoring framework because it also eases the burden.”

At the conclusion of the Nadi Dialogue, the PIC representatives came to a collective agreement that documenting these principles of practice for establishing effective NMIRFs would be a valuable exercise.

The “Pacific Process’ was designed as a consensus-based undertaking to remotely develop an outcome document from the Nadi dialogue. This was to be done through multiple drafting phases involving the PIC representatives ultimately be turned into a set of principles for NMIRFs – the Pacific Principles.

In March 2020 the Pacific Process concluded and the drafting states were invited to confer their endorsement on the document. To date eight of the ten PICs have given their endorsement. The process and subsequent endorsements truly reflect the depth of practical experience and political support the Pacific Principles are founded on.

The Pacific Principles for NMIRFs

The Pacific Principles provide a framework for the establishment and development of NMIRFs that has global utility and are based on an understanding that ‘no one-size-fits-all’. The principles encourage flexibility of application in response to the national context, whilst at the same time identifying common roles, responsibilities and characteristics that are essential for the effectiveness of any national mechanism.

Importantly an NMIRF should be permanent and established by the executive or legislative to move away from the ad hoc approach and be given the necessary structure, mandate and resources to enable the effective coordination and tracking of national implementation of human rights and other overlapping frameworks such as the SDGs and National Development Strategies. The ad hoc approach, so common until recent years, was characterised by national actors (the government ministries, civil society, NHRIs, parliamentarians, private sector, traditional and religious leaders, etc.) operating in silos in their implementation of the obligations and standards.

An NMIRF must provide a regular platform for coordination between these actors, through meetings and the use of emerging technologies such as IMPACT OSS , the NRTD and SIMORE . In doing so this allows a coordinated approach to implementation and monitoring that avoids duplication or gaps, creates efficiencies and facilitates an implementation focused approach, as opposed to an ad hoc approach that can only seek to address the reporting burden. The full Pacific Principles outline the range of tasks an NMIRF should have incorporated into its mandate from the outset.

Beyond the Pacific Process

The launch event on 3 July signifies the end of the process initiated at the end of the Nadi Dialogue but it is only the beginning for the Pacific Principles. Within the region, SPC RRRT is already working with multiple governments to establish and strengthen NMIRFs using the Pacific Principles as the guiding framework.

At the international level, the global interest in the Pacific’s achievements was made clear in the passing of Human Rights Council Resolution A/HRC/42/L.3, which commits funding for the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights to undertake five regional dialogues around the world to build on the outcomes of Nadi. The Pacific Principles are a head start for all of these events and represent an opportunity for the document to gain global approval and endorsement. This would strengthen the NMIRF establishment movement by creating a common guiding framework around which national efforts and technical assistance can be framed and peer to peer strengthening can be encouraged. The Principles may be of the Pacific but they are for the world.

For more information on the Pacific Principles, technical assistance requests from RRRT, interest in NMIRF technologies or other questions arising from this article please contact [email protected] or [email protected]


Republic of Vanuatu

Baggrund:
British and French settled the islands in the 19th century, they agreed in 1906 to administer the islands jointly, called the British-French Condominium, which last until independence in 1980.

Vanuatu is recognized as one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world. Besides the Ni-Vanuatu and other Pacific Island people, there are small communities of French, British, Australian, New Zealand, Vietnamese, and Chinese origin.

Tid:
Local Time = UTC +11h
Faktisk tid: Mon-June-21 09:33

Hovedstad: Port Vila (on the island of Efate pop. 30 000)

Andre byer:
Luganville (on the island of Espiritu Santo, also known as Santo).

Regering:
Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Independence: 30 July 1980 (from France and UK) .
Constitution: 30 July 1980.

Geografi:
Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia and west of Fiji.
Area: 14,760 km² (5,697 sq miles).
Terrain: Mostly mountains of volcanic origin, narrow coastal plains.

Klima: Maritime tropical moderate rainfall from November to April.

Mennesker:
Nationality: Noun and adjective: ni-Vanuatu.
Population: 278,000 (2015, National Statistics).
Ethnic groups: 94% ni-Vanuatu 4% European 2% other Pacific Islanders, Asian.
Religion: Predominantly Christian.
Languages: 3 official languages: English, French and Bislama (pidgin English), plus over 120 distinct languages.
Literacy: 53%

Naturressourcer: Manganese, hardwood forests, fish.

Landbrugsprodukter: Copra, coconuts, cocoa, coffee, taro, yams, coconuts, fruits, vegetables fish, beef.

Eksport - varer: copra, beef, cocoa, timber, kava, coffee

Exports partners: Japan 35.1%, Turkey 10.5%, Thailand 8.7%, China 8.2%, Venezuela 5.9%, UK 5.6% (2015)

Import - varer: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, fuels

Importpartnere: China 16.7%, Australia 14.6%, Japan 13.9%, Singapore 10%, Fiji 9.3%, NZ 8.3%, New Caledonia 5.2% (2015)

Official Sites of Vanuatu

Government of Vanuatu
Official site of the Government of the Republic of Vanuatu.

Intergovernmental organisations
Pacific Islands Forum
Inter-governmental organization for the cooperation between the countries of the Pacific Ocean.
Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC)
Intergovernmental organisation of the Pacific islands.

Statistics
Vanuatu Statistics Office
Vanuatu's official statistical agency.


Vejr
Vanuatu Meteorological Service
Vanuatu weather from Port Vila Forecasting Centre.

Administrative Map of Vanuatu
Shaded relief map of Vanuatu with provinial borders.
Google Earth Vanuatu
Searchable map and satellite view of Vanuatu.
Google Earth Port Vila
Searchable map and satellite view of Vanuatu.

Map of Melanesia
Map of the Island States of Melanesia.
Map of Oceania and the Pacific Islands
Reference Map of Oceania and the Pacific Islands.

Loop
Loop Pacific, coverage of news, sports, entertainment, etc.

Vanuatu Daily Digest
What the Vanuatu news media are saying, with added spice.

Kunst og kultur

Cultural Vanuatu
Vanuatu is rich in cultural festivals not seen anywhere else in the world, ranging from the death defying Pentecost Land Dive (nagol), to the colorful and powerful Tanna Toka Dance which goes on for days, the mystical Rom dance of Ambrym island of magic and fire, and Water Music custom festival performed by the women of Gaua Island. . Læs mere

Further Arts Vanuatu
Music, Dance and Culture portal of Vanuatu.

Erhverv og økonomi

Rejse- og rejseforbrugerinformation

Destination Vanuatu Travel and Tour Guides

Discover Vanutu islands: Banks and Torres, Espiritu Santo, Maewo, Pentecost, Malekula, Ambrym, Epi, Efate, Erromango, Tanna, Aneityum.
Find accommodation, hotels, attractions, festivals, events, tourist boards, biking, hiking, cruising, diving, volcanoe tours and much more.

Vanuatu Tourism Office
Information on Vanuatu accommodation, tours and travel throughout the islands of Vanuatu.


Vanuatu A-Z Visitors Guide
Fra ENccommodation to Zoos, the (not so) small guide to a tropical paradise.

Port Vila Today
Blog about Port Vila and Vanuatu.

Bokissa
Coral eco island Bokissa south of Aspiritu Santo.

Vanuatu Volcano Travel
Vanuatu Volcano Travel with volcanologist John Seach.

Finding Vanuatu
David Stanley's comprehensiveVanuatu information page.

Uddannelse

University of the South Pacific
Premier institution of tertiary education in the Pacific region, jointly owned by the governments of twelve island countries, USP is an international centre of excellence for teaching, research and consulting on all aspects of Pacific life.

Miljø og natur

Vanuatu Environmental Science Society
VESS’ promotes science in the fields of conservation, environmental protection and sustainable development within Vanuatu.

Vanuatu's Biodiversity
Comprehensive information about Vanuatu's Biodiversity projects.

Historie

Historie
Explore Vanuatu&rsquos rich cultural history and its role in World War 2.

Timeline : Vanuatu
A timeline of Vanuatu's history, the country formerly known as the New Hebrides.


Se videoen: Priča o ljudskim pravima. The Story of Human Rights (Juli 2022).


Kommentarer:

  1. Marn

    Kapets! vi bruger det alle sammen

  2. Dariel

    Jeg tror, ​​du ikke har ret. Jeg er sikker. Jeg inviterer dig til at diskutere.

  3. Vance

    det er virkelig mærkeligt

  4. Mosegi

    I regret, that I can not participate in discussion now. It is not enough information. But with pleasure I will watch this theme.

  5. Jack

    Helt enig med dig. God idé, fastholder jeg.



Skriv en besked