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8 Opfindelser, vi skylder de gamle


1. Papir

Allerede i 3000 f.Kr. havde egypterne udviklet en teknik til fremstilling af papir fra papyrusplanten, et almindeligt syn langs Nilens bred. Lange strimler blev vævet sammen og vægtet for at binde dem til et stærkt, tyndt ark. Egypterne opfandt også stier fremstillet af afskårne siv, som var stærke nok til at skrive på papyrus, og blandede sod eller andet organisk materiale med bivoks og vegetabilsk tyggegummi til fremstilling af blæk. Disse gamle papirfremstillere vidste, hvad de lavede: Mange af disse papyrusark indskrevet med egyptiske hieroglyffer forbliver intakte og læsbare, selv efter mere end 5000 år.

2. Øjenmakeup

Gamle egyptere vidste alt om kraften i et røgfyldt øje. Lige tilbage i 4000 f.Kr. begyndte de at lave kohl til at se deres øjne ved at blande sod med galena, et mineral med en metallisk blålig, grå eller sort nuance. I nogle gamle malerier er egypterne afbildet iført grøn øjenmakeup, en nuance, de opnåede ved at blande et andet mineral, malakit, med galena. Både kvinder og mænd bar øjenmakeup i kohl i det gamle Egypten. De mente, at det havde helbredende egenskaber, såvel som magt til at beskytte bæreren mod det onde øje.

3. Demokratisk regering

Ordet "demokrati" stammer fra det græske udtryk demokratia, der bogstaveligt talt betyder "folkets styre." Ordet - og begrebet - blev introduceret i 507 f.Kr. af Cleisthenes, hersker over den græske bystat Athen. Denne form for folkestyre bestod af tre separate institutioner: ekklesia eller forsamlingen, der skrev love og dikterede udenrigspolitik; boule, et repræsentantskab valgt blandt de forskellige athenske stammer; og dikasteria, et populært retssystem. I praksis deltog kun et lille mindretal af den athenske befolkning i denne tidlige form for demokratisk styre, da deltagelse var begrænset til mandlige borgere over 18. Athens system for folkestyre ville kun vare indtil omkring 460 f.Kr. da et aristokrati begyndte at dukke op under ledelse af den generelle Perikles. Imidlertid har de demokratiske idealer og processer, der stammer fra det antikke Grækenland, haft indflydelse på politikere og regeringer lige siden.

4. Marathon

I 490 f.Kr., som historien går, løb en græsk soldat fra Marathon til Athen, en afstand på godt 26 miles, for at bringe nyheder om den athenske sejr over perserne i slaget ved Marathon. Efter at have leveret sit budskab døde soldaten straks. Gennem århundreder blev hans historie i konflikt med historien om en anden, mere berømt, græsk soldat: Pheidippides. Inden slaget ved Marathon fandt sted, løb Pheidippides fra Athen til Sparta for at advare andre grækere om den persiske invasion og angiveligt dækkede omkring 250 kilometer ujævnt terræn på kun to dage. Desværre var Sparta midt i en religiøs fest, da han ankom, og spartanerne kunne ikke mobilisere til krig, før det var for sent; slaget var allerede slut. Det første moderne maraton fandt sted ved de genoplivede olympiske lege i Athen i 1896 og blev vundet - passende - af en græsk løber, Spyridon Louis.

5. Beton

Det skræmmende holdbare stof kendt som opus caementicium eller romersk beton opstod først for omkring 2.100 år siden og ville muliggøre den arkitektoniske vanvid, der begyndte med Augustus, den første romerske kejser, i 27 f.Kr. Romerne blandede kalksten med vulkansk aske for at danne en mørtel og pakkede derefter dette tykke stof sammen med klumper af mursten eller vulkansk tuff for at danne grundmaterialet til veje, broer, akvædukter, bygninger og andre strukturer - herunder sådanne vedvarende adfærd som Pantheon og Colosseum. Nutidens forskere har konkluderet, at romersk beton, selvom den er svagere end moderne cement, forbløffende langtidsholdbar og forbliver relativt intakt, selv efter århundreders eksponering for havvand og andre skadelige elementer.

6. Avis


Acta Diurna (eller "daglige handlinger"), der først dukkede op omkring 131 f.Kr., tjente som en avis af politiske og sociale begivenheder i det gamle Rom. Nyheder om begivenheder som militære sejre, gladiatorbug og andre spil, fødsler og dødsfald og endda historier af menneskelig interesse blev indskrevet på metal eller sten og opslået i områder med stor fodtrafik, f.eks. Forum Romanum. Senere, under Julius Cæsars første konsul, begyndte Acta Senatus at kronikere det romerske senats aktiviteter. Acta Diurna, som fortsatte udgivelsen under Romerriget (efter 27 f.Kr.), kan betragtes som prototypen til den moderne avis.

7. Chokolade


Denne vigtige opfindelse stammer fra bønnerne fra kakaotræet, som blev dyrket for mere end 3.000 år siden af ​​Maya-, Aztec- og Toltec-folkene i det gamle Mesoamerika. Disse civilisationer brugte træets frugt, kakaobønnen, til at forberede en skummende drik, de betragtede som en energidrik, stemningsforstærker og afrodisiakum alt i ét. Mayaerne tilbad kakaotræet som helligt, og kakaobønner voksede så værdifulde, at de blev brugt som valuta. I det 16. århundrede bragte spanske conquistadores, der søgte guld og sølv i den nye verden, chokolade tilbage til Europa med dem og lancerede en dille, der - lad os være ærlige - aldrig rigtig sluttede.

8. Nul


På trods af al dens betydning kan det overraske dig at lære, at nul er et relativt nyt begreb i menneskets historie, selvom det stadig har sine rødder i oldtiden. Ideen om at bruge et nul-lignende symbol som en pladsholder-for eksempel at vise forskellen mellem 10 og 100 eller at vise fraværet i en kolonne med et andet tal (f.eks. 2015)-smeltede sammen engang efter 300 f.Kr., da den gamle Babylonierne tilpassede det sumeriske tællesystem. En halv verden væk, i det gamle Mesoamerika, kom mayaerne med ideen om nul som en pladsholder uafhængigt omkring 350 e.Kr. tal i sig selv eller brug det i ligninger. Den mere fuldstændige vision om nul opstod først i det 7. århundrede i Indien, da den hinduistiske astronom Brahmagupta skrev regler for brug af nul i matematiske operationer og ligninger og introducerede konceptet om, at nul kunne ses som et antal af sine egne.


8 Opfindelige designs af Leonardo Da Vinci, der har nutidens modstykker

Leonardo da Vincis design til et kampvogn. Kilde: Bortolon, The Life and Times of Leonardo, Paul Hamlyn. Via: Wikimedia Commons

Maleren af Mona Lisa var ikke kun et geni med rene kunstneriske fornuftigheder, men også en mand med sin byge af 'hofte' designs, der var langt forud for deres tid. Ja, vi taler om de konceptuelle opfindelser af Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519 e.Kr.), og hvordan de utroligt afspejler mange af vores nutidige modsætninger. Så lad os uden videre fortælle om de otte utroligt opfindsomme designs af Leonardo da Vinci, der har nutidens modstykker.

Bemærk - De fleste af disse 'opfindelser' forblev desværre konceptuelle i deres omfang - med detaljerede skitser og noter i de berømte Codex Atlanticus.

1) 'Flying Machine' -

Uden tvivl den mest berømte af da Vinci 'hacks', den flyvende maskine (eller 'ornitopter') var i bund og grund forestillet som en træramme med to forlængende vinger, der udgjorde et vingefang på mere end 33 fod. Denne kerneramme skulle bygges af let, men robust fyrretræ, mens den blev draperet i råt silke for at tilføje til den' fjerede ' ligning. Hvad angår kraftmekanismen, pralede det konceptuelle design af et stang-og-remskive system, der ville have kontrolleret vingerne, mens piloten lagde sin indsats i pedalerne (forstærket af en håndsving, der kunne øge energiproduktionen). Piloten kunne også styre kontrasten via et hovedstykke - en ikke -misundelsesværdig opgave som demonstreret af et af niveauerne i videospillet Assassins creed broderskab.

Under alle omstændigheder er det, der adskilte Flying Machine fra moderne fly, dens mangel på en motormekanisme. Så med andre ord, mens ornitopter kunne have fløjet i luften, ville det helt sikkert have været svært at først få maskinen fra jorden.

2) Maskinpistolen -

I slutningen af ​​1400 -tallet var kanoner hovedsageligt af rudimentær fabrikat med deres antediluviske mekanisme, der muliggjorde en meget langsom ildfrekvens. Leonardo da Vinci observerede den taktiske knibe, og som en løsning konstruerede det 33-tønde orgel. I det væsentlige var den multi-barreled enhed tænkt til at have 33 forskellige små kaliber kanoner, der skulle arrangeres langs 3 rækker (med 11 kanoner hver). Dette såkaldte 'orgel' (der ligner et musikorgels piber) skulle derefter understøttes på en roterende platform, der også kunne være mobil på grund af hjulene på hver side.

Det er ret interessant at vide, at den tilsyneladende lignende volleypistol faktisk var i brug i variantformer allerede før da Vincis fødsel (som ‘Ribauldequin'Brugt under hundredeårskrigen). Da Vincis 33-tøndeorgel lignede imidlertid mere maskingeværmodeller fra det 19. århundrede-ligesom Gatling-pistolen, der pralede af højere ildhastigheder, uden at problemet med tønden blev overophedet.

3) faldskærm -

Historisk set kan den fysiske variation af faldskærm ikke tilskrives en af ​​Leonardo da Vinci -opfindelser - med tilhørende legitimationsoplysninger tilhørende en Sebastien Lenormand i 1783. Da Vinci lavede imidlertid et konceptuelt design af 'faldskærmen' næsten tre århundreder før Lenormand, med sin idé om en trekantet baldakin af linned, der formodentlig ville dække en lys træramme. Ifølge en af ​​beskrivelserne nedenfor hans skitser -

Hvis en mand har et telt lavet af gummieret linned, hvoraf åbningerne (åbningerne) alle er blevet stoppet op, og det er tolv braccia (ca. 23 fod) på tværs og tolv i dybden, vil han være i stand til at kaste sig ned fra enhver stor højde uden at komme til skade.

Ganske interessant besluttede en mand ved navn Adrian Nichols at teste da Vincis opfattelse ved at lave en egentlig fysisk version i overensstemmelse med gengivelserne fra 1400-tallet. Den resulterende konstruktion blev med succes skabt i luften i 2000, hvor Nichols lovpriste sin effektivitet i håndteringen af ​​luftmodstand.

4) Selvkørende vogn-

Muligvis en forløber for vores moderne biler, er den selvkørende vogn også unik på grund af dens 'robotiske' legitimationsoplysninger, der vedrørte forudbestemte styrefunktioner. Til dette formål blev den avancerede vogn overvejet at blive drevet af spiralfjedre, samtidig med at den havde en troværdig styremekanisme, balancehjul (også brugt i ure) sammen med et bremsesystem. Så da bremserne blev frigivet, sprang vognen frem - med køretøjets retning styret af den programmerede styring, der kunne føre vognen i forskellige vinkler.

Endnu en gang blev den selvkørende vogn re-forestillet i vores samtid, af nogle folk på Italiens institut og Museum of Science History. Maskinen blev skabt ved at basere sit design på da Vincis originale skitser, og resultatet var temmelig overraskende. Forskerne fandt ud af, at det møblerede køretøj lignede Mars Rover meget meget, mens dets navigationssystem fungerede i henhold til dets konceptualiserede oprindelse.

5) Humanoid robotisk 'ridder' -

Klædt i tung tysk-italiensk middelalderlig rustning blev den mekaniske ridder opfattet i 1495 som en humanoid automat. Vi siger 'udtænkt', fordi maskinen med sit interne system af remskiver, tandhjul, håndtag og krumtap, KAN have været den allerførste menneskelignende robot, der faktisk blev skabt i menneskehedens historie-af ingen ringere end da Vinci selv. Ifølge nogle beretninger blev denne såkaldte robot ceremonielt vist ved domstolen i Milano under en gala, der var vært for byens hertug Ludovico Sforza.

Drevet af disse indre mekanismer (fordelt jævnt over torso og kroppens nederste del) havde den robotiske 'ridder' angiveligt kapacitet til både at sidde ned og rejse sig, mens den også viste sin evne til at løfte visiret og endda flytte hovedet . Og ganske spændende byggede den berømte robotiker Mark Rosheim (kendt for sine bidrag til NASA og Lockheed Martin) med succes en version af denne humanoide automat i 2002 ved at bruge da Vincis tegninger, der blev opdaget i 1950’erne. Og resultatet demonstrerede hensigtsmæssigt effektiviteten af ​​det originale design med robotten i stand til flydende at bevæge sig og vinke.

6) Pansret bil -

Hvis den selvkørende vogn er forløberen for moderne biler, er den pansrede bil helt sikkert forløberen for nutidens militære kampvogne. Designet som en massiv cirkulær platform forstærket med robuste metalliske plader og drevet af hjul - den pansrede bil blev overvejet at have et mandskab på 8 medlemmer inde i skroget. Derudover ville platformen bære en række lette kanoner, hvor skytten havde 360 ​​graders synsfelt, der skulle hjælpes af et synstårn øverst.

Det er tilstrækkeligt at sige, at hele udstyret skulle drives af mennesker - med mændene inde i arbejdet på håndsvingene, der ville få hjulene til at dreje. Leonardo da Vinci tænkte endda på at inkludere heste i svingningsomfanget, men tænkte senere imod det på grund af dyrs ukontrollerbare natur. Men den mest forvirrende del ved den pansrede bil er indretningen af ​​kranksystemerne, der tilsyneladende går i modsatte retninger - hvilket i sidste ende gør køretøjet urørligt. Ifølge nogle historikere kan dette have været en forsætlig fejl, da 'pacifisten' da Vinci ikke ønskede, at hans krigsmaskiner skulle udvikles yderligere til egentlige militære aktioner.

7) Bærbar svingbro -

Da vi talte om mobilitet (eller mangel på det) i den forrige post, indebar en af ​​da Vinci -opfindelserne en svingbro, der kan pakkes og trækkes af hære i bevægelse. Designet igen til sin velhavende protektor Ludovico Sforza (hertugen af ​​Milano), var den største fordel ved denne bærbare konstruktion, at den kunne svinges over vandområder (som floder og vandløb) og dermed gøre det lettere for soldater at krydse, mens de lave hurtige march.

Rent teknisk var broen tænkt til at have en modvægtstank, der ville gøre strukturen afbalanceret på begge sider. Med hensyn til dets lette transport blev designet konstrueret til at have hjul og et reb-og-remskive system til effektiv implementering på kort tid.

8) Dykkerdragt -

Måske den mindst kendte af alle da Vinci -opfindelser, scuba -gearet blev konceptuelt udviklet, da den store opfinder arbejdede på et projekt i Venedig. Dykkerudstyret var også tænkt som militært udstyr, der kunne bruges til marinebaserede overraskelsesangreb på fjendtlige fartøjer. Til dette formål skulle dykkerdragten være lavet af læder, og den havde en særlig maske med to rør (fastgjort til næseområdet), der var forbundet med en dykkeklokke i kork, der flød over vandet.

Interessant nok var dykkerudstyret forestillet på en sådan måde, så masken ville have en ekstra oppustelig ballonlignende enhed, der ville hjælpe dykkeren med at nedsænke eller komme op over vandstanden. Denne fiks dims blev ledsaget af et separat rum i dragten, der yderligere ville give dykkeren mulighed for at urinere, hvis han arbejder på en lang undersøisk mission.


1. Det første kort

Kort har enorm betydning, selv i den moderne verden, hvor vi er afhængige af Google Maps til mange af vores rejser. En gammel babylonsk kartograf skabte verdens første kort på en lertavle i 2300 f.Kr. Kortet dækker en lille region i Babylonien under det akkadiske imperium. Det viser handelsruter og blev brugt som reference under militære kampagner, jagt og udforskning. Det babylonske kort over verden er cirkulært og viser bjerge, floder, kanaler og sumpe. De syv små cirkler på kortet repræsenterer de syv babylonske byer. Det kan nu findes i British Museum.


8 Store moderne innovationer, vi kan takke muslimer for

Da tusinder af "patriotiske europæere" igen gik på gaden i Dresden for at protestere mod "islamiseringen af ​​Vesten", var deres handlinger ikke kun et resultat af harme og frygt, men også af uvidenhed.

Heldigvis for os har vores centraleuropæiske kultur nydt godt af islamisk påvirkning i hundreder af år.

Hvis en af ​​talerne mandag aften i Dresden justerer sine briller, ved han sandsynligvis ikke, at han holder på en opfindelse fra den arabiske verden. Hvis en af ​​demonstranterne begynder at synge højresange, kan han måske ledsage dem på et instrument med arabisk oprindelse-guitaren. Og på deres plakater vil de angiveligt frygtindgydende tal om immigration blive skrevet med arabiske tal.

Her præsenterer Huffington Post Tyskland otte ting, vi skylder store muslimske civilisationer.

Mange vesterlændinge, især tyskere, er stolte over deres teknologiske og ingeniørbedrifter. Men hvor ville ingeniører være uden algebra?

Det matematiske system blev kendt i Europa i det tolvte århundrede, da den britiske arabist Robert af Chester oversatte den persiske lærd Al-Khwarizmis skrifter. Al-Khwarizmi, for hvem algoritmer er opkaldt, er kendt som udvikleren af ​​moderne algebra.

2. Tandbørsten

Islam var en af ​​de første verdensreligioner, der lagde særlig vægt på kropshygiejne. Koranen indeholder instruktioner til rituel vask. Det er derfor ikke underligt, at tandhygiejne også voksede i popularitet som islam gjorde. De gamle egyptere menes ganske vist at have tygget kviste fra „tandbørstetræet“.

Kvistene, også kendt som "miswak", blev dog kun kendt for en bredere offentlighed, da profeten Mohammed regelmæssigt brugte dem til at børste tænder. Selvom der ikke nævnes miswak -kviste i Koranen, nævnes de mange gange i skrifter af muslimske lærde.

3. Marcherende bands

Militære marcherende bands dateres tilbage til den osmanniske Mehterhane. Disse var bands, der spillede under hele slaget og først ophørte med at lave deres musik, da hæren trak sig tilbage eller slaget var slut.

Under krigene med Det Osmanniske Rige menes banderne at have gjort et betydeligt indtryk på europæiske soldater - hvorefter de tilpassede princippet til eget brug.

4. Guitaren

Guitaren, som vi kender den i dag, har sin oprindelse i den arabiske oud - en lut med en bøjet hals. I middelalderen fandt den vej til det muslimske Spanien, hvor den blev omtalt som "qitara" på arabisk i Andalusien.

Det siges, at en musiklærer bragte en til retten for Umayyad -herskeren Abdel Rahman II i det niende århundrede. Den moderne guitar udviklede sig som et resultat af mange påvirkninger, men den arabiske lut var en vigtig forgænger.

5. Forstørrelsesglas/glas

Ikke alene revolutionerede den arabiske verden matematik - den revolutionerede også optikken. Den lærde Alhazen (Abu al-Hasan) fra Basra var den første person til at beskrive, hvordan øjet fungerer.

Han udførte eksperimenter med reflekterende materialer og beviste, at øjet ikke fornemmer miljøet med "synstråler", som forskere havde troet indtil da. Han opdagede også, at buede glasoverflader kan bruges til forstørrelse.

Hans "læsesten" af glas var de første forstørrelsesglas. Det var fra disse, at der senere blev udviklet briller. Desuden skrev Alhazen vigtige videnskabelige tekster om astronomi og meteorologi. 6. Kaffe

Kaffe er den mest kendte af den muslimske verdens eksport. Mens den stammer fra Etiopien, fandt den hurtigt vej over Det Røde Hav til den arabiske halvø, hvor den voksede i popularitet.

Det menes, at en osmannisk købmand bragte den bønnebaserede drik til London i 1600-tallet. Venedig fik sit første kaffehus i 1645, mens Tyskland lærte drikken at kende efter tyrkernes tilbagetrækning fra Østrig i 1683. Legenden fortæller, at sultanens soldater efterlod sække af kaffe bag sig.

7. Hospitaler

Det første moderne hospital med sygeplejersker og et træningscenter var i Kairo. På Ahmed Ibn Tulun -hospitalet (opkaldt efter grundlæggeren af ​​Tulunid -dynastiet), der blev oprettet i år 872, modtog alle patienter gratis sundhedspleje - en muslimsk tradition, som blev institutionaliseret med hospitalets ankomst.

Lidt mere basale hospitaler havde eksisteret før dette i Bagdad. Men det var Cairo -modellen, der senere skulle tjene som skabelon for hospitaler over hele kloden.

8. Kirurgiske innovationer

Den andalusisk fødte læge Albucasis (Abu al-Kasim) var en af ​​middelalderens mest betydningsfulde medicinske skikkelser. I de mere end 30 bind, han skrev, beskrev arabiske lærde fra det tiende århundrede, hvor vigtigt et positivt patient-læge-forhold er, og argumenterede for den samme standard for lægehjælp til alle, uanset social klasse.

Han opfandt også metoder til kirurgisk behandling af sygdomme i urinrøret, øret og spiserøret og var den første person til at beskrive en ektopisk graviditet. Så stor var hans indflydelse, at han stadig blev citeret af førende europæiske læger i 1500 -tallet. Hans ideer formede moderne kirurgi.

Dette stykke dukkede oprindeligt op på HuffPost Tyskland og blev oversat til engelsk.

KORREKTIONER: Sprog er blevet ændret i hele denne artikel for mere præcist at karakterisere muslimers bidrag, som i nogle tilfælde repræsenterer betydelige forbedringer af tidligere teknologier snarere end opfindelsen af ​​disse teknologier direkte. En tidligere version identificerede arabiske tal som en islamisk opfindelse, de er af hinduistisk afledning. Det overdrev også, hvor længe islam har eksisteret, og miskarakteriserede persisk lærd Al-Khwarizmi som arabisk.


8 Opfindelser, vi skylder de gamle - HISTORIE

Siden mennesket bosatte jordoverfladen, var han allerede en opfinder og designer, og han brugte denne viden til at jage, dyrke og beskytte ham mod vejret eller for at gøre hans liv mere behageligt.

Egyptologiens historie er fuld af store opdagelser. Nogle opfindelser og designs, som egypterne har efterladt os, er de store stenstrukturer i deres templer og pyramider, dets rige møbler af stole, senge, sandaler, parykker osv. Hans nye rum til haver dedikeret til aromatiske og medicinske planter og selvfølgelig , Deres vidunderlige smykker.

I tusinder af år smed egypterne et hidtil uset imperium med et ubestrideligt hegemoni, hvor forskellige aspekter af kultur, erobringer og opfindelser stadig er til stede i vores daglige liv.

Vi henviser til en civilisation, som for mere end 5000 år siden, mænd og kvinder brød sig om deres æstetik ved hjælp af makeup, smykker og parykker, dyrkede sport, skrev med blyant og papir, og hvis børn blandt andet havde legetøj og brætspil.

Uden mere inviterer vi dig til at kende nogle af de top 16 opfindelser i det gamle Egypten, der stadig har deres gyldighed i dag.

Derivater af papyrus: papir, stearinlys og tøj:

Derivater af papyrus: papir, stearinlys og tøj:

Papir er et af de vigtigste redskaber for menneskeheden, og takket være dets opfindelse i det gamle imperium, omkring 140 f.Kr., var det muligt at overføre viden, udvikle skrivning, sprog og kunst blandt mange andre ting.

Egypterne var ikke direkte ansvarlige for opfindelsen af ​​papir, men de skabte en af ​​deres første præcedenser. Ved at drage fordel af strimlerne af papyrusplanten begyndte de at fremstille fleksible og resistente scriptstøtter. Dens brug begyndte at blive reduceret med den gradvise forsvinden af ​​den gamle egyptiske kultur, der blev erstattet af pergament.

Det faldt i løbet af det 5. århundrede og forsvandt fuldstændigt i det 11. århundrede. Det var så vigtigt, at de fleste af de store biblioteker i Europa besidder manuskripter i papyrus.

Men sandheden er, at tusinder af år siden i det gamle Egypten havde skabt et meget lignende materiale fra de rigelige papyri, der voksede i de sumpede områder, der grænser op til Nilen, hvor egypterne bosatte sig.

Papyrusfibrene havde en stærk, modstandsdygtig og samtidig fleksibel konsistens, som gjorde det muligt for egypterne at konstruere et ark, der lignede meget papir, lys, sandaler, kjoler, tæpper og mange andre elementer.

Det skriftlige sprogsystem:

Det skriftlige sprogsystem:

Selve skriftsproget var en egyptisk opfindelse. Selvom vi ved, at der er malerier og tegninger i huler i nogle områder i Europa, der går tilbage til mere end 30.000 f.Kr., gik der tusinder af år for mennesker til at skabe et skriftsproget system.

På trods af malerierne i nogle områder i Europa, ud over 30.000 år f.Kr., blev det ikke perfektioneret før 6000 f.Kr. i det gamle Egypten og Mesopotamien, hvor piktogrammer blev udviklet med etablerede karakterer og regler. Med opdagelsen af ​​Rosetta -stenen var det i høj grad muligt at fortolke det hieroglyfiske system og kende forskellige aspekter af den civilisation.

Dette system begyndte at udvikle sig omkring 6000 f.Kr. i det gamle Egypten og Mesopotamien ved hjælp af piktogrammer med definerede tegn og regler, der tillod repræsentation af navne og ideer.

Takket være dette system kan vi i øjeblikket kende mange af de mest interessante aspekter af denne fascinerende civilisation. I en af ​​de mange arkæologiske undersøgelser af det gamle Egypten blev den berømte Rosetta -sten fundet, som gjorde det muligt at forstå hieroglyfernes system og dermed kende forskellige religiøse, politiske, krigeriske, kulturelle og historiske aspekter af civilisationen.

Kondomet:

Der er talrige malerier fra omkring 3000 f.Kr., hvor mænd kan ses ved hjælp af en slags kondom, et kondom lavet med tarm, hud eller dyrevæv.

Mandlige præventionsmidler har faktisk deres oprindelse i den gamle egyptiske civilisation. I denne forstand er referencer til lignende objekter fundet i malerier fra 3.000 f.Kr. Disse gamle mandlige kondomer blev lavet med tarm eller dyrehud.

Selvom der fejlagtigt er nogle, der hævder, at de blev brugt som prævention, er der intet, der fuldt ud understøtter påstanden. Forskerne antager dog, at det er et tøj, der bruges i ritualer eller særlige ceremonier.

Under alle omstændigheder er muligheden for, at den blev brugt under samleje, ikke udelukket. Og så utvivlsomt det mest ubehagelige og ubehagelige kondom, der nogensinde har eksisteret.

Æstetisk værdi: makeup, tøj og haircuts:

Æstetisk værdi: makeup, tøj og haircuts:

Egypterne var store innovatører, en enorm magt, sande kunstnere, ingeniører, arkitekter, frygtindgydende krigere og meget mere, hvorfra vi ville blive opmuntret til at sige, at egypterne var koketter, sarte og ekstremt pæne.

Der er ingen optegnelser om en civilisation, hvor folk klipper deres hår. De betragtede hår som uhygiejniske, de barberede sig. Øjnene var en af ​​de mest omsorgsfulde dele, herunder brug af en slags blyantstyling. De brugte make-up som eyeliner blyant, de parfumerede sig selv. De brugte højhælede sko eller smykker med æstetiske og dekorative formål.

To faktorer påvirker disse opfindelser direkte: ørkenens frygteligt varme klima. Tænk, hvis de lod vokse deres skæg og havde langt hår som vikingerne midt i ørkenen og social status, hvilket er et andet stort aspekt at skille sig ud blandt de egyptiske opfindelser, hvor ikke barbering symboliserede lav status. Under alle omstændigheder er det noget særligt, at de ved ceremonierne bruger falske skæg lavet med rester af hår og farvet uld.

Medicin:

Selvom mange af de gamle civilisationer havde deres helbredelsesmåder, betragtede egypterne sundhed og sygdom på en helt særlig måde. De mente, at det var en kamp mellem kræfterne på godt og ondt, hvor det var muligt at deltage gennem administration af medicin og fortryllelser, der blev diagnosticeret af vismænd, der analyserede folks sundhedstilstand.

Selvfølgelig kan du ikke etablere en forbindelse til moderne medicin. Den måde, hvorpå det blev fastslået, at behandling ville være nødvendig og eksistensen af ​​noget som sundhedspersonale, ligner imidlertid meget, hvordan medicinens drift udvikler sig i dag.

Gamle civilisationer havde deres egen måde at forholde sig til sundhedsspørgsmål på. Men for at spare de enorme afstande, der adskiller os fra den civilisation, havde egypterne visse grupper specialiseret i medicinske spørgsmål og inspicerede ulemperne for at tilbyde en mulig løsning på lidelserne.

På hans måde blev menneskekroppen, lidelserne og de mulige løsninger på de sygdomme, som ramte mennesker, grundigt analyseret. Det skal også bemærkes, at den første kendte operation blev udført i det gamle Egypten, omkring 2750 f.Kr.

Tandpasta:

I deres besættelse af skønhed glemte egypterne heller ikke deres mundhygiejne. Således brugte de en blanding af essenser som mynte, kanel eller honning, hvis mål var at have et smukt smil og god ånde, og som kunne betragtes som forfaderen til den nuværende tandpasta.

Låse:

De blev dannet af et system med akser og bolte på dørene, der tillod åbning og lukning af låsene ved hjælp af en nøgle.

Brugen af ​​låse er en grundlæggende del af vores dages sikkerhed, og vi skylder det i vid udstrækning de vidunderlige egyptere. Det anslås, at de første låse var en opfindelse af egypterne udviklet omkring 4000 f.Kr.

Det var en enhed, der blokerede indgangen til kabinetterne. Et system med akser og bolte i dørene, der åbner og lukker låsene ved at indsætte en nøgle, der hævede eller sænkede boltene.

Tandpasta og mynte til vejret:

Tandpasta og mynte til vejret:

Dette punkt kunne meget vel være en del af den fjerde opfindelse, der præsenterede dig, hvor vi understregede den hygiejniske karakter og den værdi, æstetikken havde for de gamle egyptere. De lagde også stor vægt på deres mundhygiejne og hygiejne, hvor de tog de første skridt i opfindelsen af ​​tandpasta og åndefrø.

I forskellige undersøgelser fandt arkæologer en slags tandstikker, der blev brugt som tandbørster, salver baseret på brændte æggeskaller, aske, støv fra oksehul og pimpsten og en blanding af essenser, røgelse, myrra, kanel og honning, som størknet i form af granulat at få frisk ånde og passe på deres tænder.

Utroligt nok blev disse elementer fundet med hieroglyfiske inskriptioner, der kunne oversættes til noget som instruktioner for at opnå hvide og perfekte tænder. Det er simpelthen spektakulært.

Solkalender:

Solkalender:

Den egyptiske civilisation tilbød verden en af ​​de første kalendere, solenergi. Først blev der brugt en måne, men unøjagtigheder blev værdsat. Webstedet bestod af 12 måneder på 30 dage hver med fem ekstra dage ved årets udgang, en organisation ikke langt fra den nuværende.

Konditionerede veje:

Konditionerede veje:

De begyndte at bygge veje med stykker kalksten og sand for at forsøge at lette transport af materialer, især de store mængder stenblokke fra stenbruddene.

Protetik og ortopædi:

De første kunstige proteser stammer fra det gamle Egypten. The oldest, 2400 a.C., was used to heal fractures and had the shape of a splint. Others, more modern, were used for example to replace the big toe of a foot.

This discovery was a kind of bandage or splint to be able to cure invoices. But that is not the only prosthesis found in that place, 600 BC ago. a kind of big toe was created that could replace the natural one in case of loss.

As you can see, the past coexists with us every day and although you believe that something was invented recently you must bear in mind that probably before it had already been tried.

Transportation and Commerce:

The fastest means of transport in Egypt was near the Nile River, through which barges with merchandise sailed. The merchants traveled to the ports of the Red Sea and the Mediterranean on wooden and cane boats. Since they did not use the money, they exchanged gold, cereals and papyrus leaves for silver, horses, cedar wood and ivory.

Mummies:

The Egyptians were believed that if the body was reserved after the death, then they lived eternally. The mummies were embalmed corpses, it was an expensive process and only the rich could afford it. They removed their liver, lungs, and brain, but not their hearts.

To keep it, they covered the corpse with special salts and finally bandaged it. In the coffin an ideal portrait of the deceased was painted, the corpse was wrapped in linen, the organs were also wrapped in linen and kept in vases and the coffin was adorned with formulas in hieroglyphic language that helped the deceased in the hereafter.

Farming:

Many Egyptians worked as farmers along the River Nile. Most people did not own the land. Instead, they worked lands that belonged to wealthy government officials or to temples. The farmers kept part of the harvest for them but every year they had to pay taxes to the landlord and the pharaoh.

They were punished if they failed to pay. The agricultural year was divided into 3 seasons. The most common grains they planted were BARLEY (for beer) and WHEAT (for bread). They also cultivated many vegetables like onions, garlic, lentils, beans, and lettuce and grapes to make wine.

Scribes:

The hieroglyphics were very complicated. Professional writers, called scribes, began their training at age 9 and the course took 12 years. When they were already very good, they could only start writing on parchments.

They performed administrative tasks and collected taxes. Usually, the scribes were represented sitting cross-legged and holding their writing materials like the statue of a tomb in Saqqara.

Pyramids:

They represent the culture of the Egyptians and its civilization. Egyptians had built them like a tomb for their queens and pharaohs. Today, they are one of the 7 wonders of the world and it is the legacy left by the Egyptians.

In this way, the Egyptian civilization was one of the most prosperous, even when it developed in an extreme climate as it has the Sahara desert. They left us as a legacy some inventions that we use every day to this day.

These are 16 of the many Egyptian inventions that to a greater or lesser extent, allow us to affirm that the Egyptian civilization, one of our favorites, was one of the most impressive and innovative that has ever existed.

Tags: civ 5 Egypt, ancient Egypt civilization

Thoughts on "Top Inventions and Discoveries of Ancient Egypt"


8 Inventions We Owe to the Ancients - HISTORY

Talking about inventions and innovations, Europeans and Americans seem to hold the trophy for that. They lead the trend around the world, and when we look around, an idea probably hooks our mind that the majority of things is invented, created and made by them. Google, Apple, Ferrari, Rolex and etc. Those big brands people pursuit with dear life are from there. Not only that, in school, we’re often heard about a lot of English names of people who makes our civilization today.

Isn’t it as well making them the great inventors? Well, you might need a second thought for that. Even though Europe and America are great in their way, thousand years ago they’re steps behind from China. Surprising isn’t it? But maybe it’s not that surprising. This most populated country of the Asian continent still shows great integrity for technology development and various inventions. Just last year, their scientists announced a project causing thousands of awed look from the international world. They’re on their way to make an artificial sun for a new energy source project. When the project is done, it’ll add a number to one of the greatest ancient Chinese inventions in history. Indeed, Chinese is one of the pioneers when it comes to inventions.

In fact, if it’s not for the ancient Chinese inventions, there’s a huge impossibility that our generation will be this progressive and that our civilization is this civil. We should thank the Chinese for their genius inventions which save us from lots of discomfort and backwardness. If you don’t yet, believe me, check these 12 fabulous ancient Chinese inventions that make our society today.

12. Paper

Before the booming of smartphone and digital world, we get all the information written on a paper made into a book. For thousands year, that’s our main way of knowledge and idea sharing. But, if China didn’t invent it thousands of years ago, we’re likely stuck with leaves, stones or boards while the earth has a faster forest crisis. I wouldn’t want to imagine that, and so we should really thankful to China for making such an invention.

Paper is one of the unrivaled ancient Chinese inventions. It truly changes our system to its core. It provides a better way of sharing information, spreading ideas, implanting propaganda, and etc. This invention has brought us to a new level of clarity and togetherness. By the invention of papers, many are achieved and if it’s not without the born of paper from Cai Lun’s hand, this era of technology development we taste won’t ever exist.

It was in the Han dynasty under emperor Ho-Ti sovereignty when paper is invented by his eunuch, around 100 BC when the other sides of the world remain clueless about this wonderful thing. Paper has spread among the Chinese that time especially since Ts’ao Lun starts the first paper industry. Nevertheless, it’ll still need thousands of years ahead until people in Eurasia get familiar with paper.

11. Compass

The old world is famous for its long journey, marking new lands and sailing to the end of the sea. You might hear of Columbus. Many well-known explorers are from Europe. Yet, do you know that their main navigation instrument invented in China, instead? That’s probably a weird idea but yes it was.

It was first intended not for sailing, though. The compass was initially invented for Feng-Shui, the infamous teach of building layout from China. They made it to deciding the south and north position. Yet eventually, the function changed and it’s recognized more as a navigational instrument. The fame of this instruments rocketed and it’s a must property in every Chinese ship. The spreading of this technology to the Europe side is highly caused by the Arab traders who’re in close contact with the Chinese.

They get inspired by that Chinese invention and so they bought it home to think of development. Hence, it’s not an instant for the information to reach European, but eventually, they got it and that great inventions lead to many invasions.

10. Gunpowder

The next great invention of ancient Chinese is gunpowder. Although in their time it might just stay as black powder, this famous invention becomes more famous as a primary gun necessity which is ironic. Originally, the Chinese didn’t have the slightest idea to create a substance with the power to kill. Instead, they’re searching for a potion which may reward them immortality. Irony bound. the mix of charcoal, sulfur, and saltpeter that supposedly gave them immortality turned to be a substance that can end their life.

However, that’s until later when the war surged up and the powder used to fill guns that the powder is known as gunpowder. In ancient China, gunpowder was merely used to make firecrackers to protect them from the evil spirit. It’s believed that the noise made by firecrackers will chase away evil spirits. Well, it looks for me that the ancient Chinese people are a lover of peace.

The spread of gunpowder to Europe suggested another story for its fame. The one responsible for the spread of gunpowder to the west is the Mongol expansion. Their expansion brought this magical burnable powder to Europeans knowledge. Thus, it was the turning point of this powder to be gunpowder.

9. Earthquake Detector

Earthquake Detector

Being one of the countries located along the ring of fire, the earthquake was also one of the Chinese concerns. Apparently, a bright inventor took an action for that an making the first earthquake detector that the world ever knew. It possibly surprised us all of how advanced ancient China civilization was! They’re like highly genius. While the rest of the world remains stagnant following their ancestor with little innovation, China beats it with numerous brilliant invention.

This first seismograph was created by Zhang Heng around 132AD. Unlike the current seismograph who can detect the exact position of and the strength of an earthquake. This first seismograph can be used only to determine the direction of an earthquake. However, at that time it was genius! No one before had the belief to be able to detect anything about an earthquake. Yet, Zhang Heng made it and surely it saved many people when an earthquake occurred.

Well, it’s no wonder that many countries see them as a strong rival. Look at how their ancestor did so thousands of years ago. Chinese has an immensely solid foundation. Many of the ancient Chinese inventionshad changed the world, it’s not impossible for the current generation to the same.

8. Silk

If you love fashion and garments, you must be familiar with silks. A garment that for centuries is deemed as an exclusive and expensive garment, this garment is invented by the Chinese. And as you may guess it, this is one of the Chinese finest inventions, by all means. As you might see, it gave a great impact on the garment industry. Yet, this invention also saved the Chinese economy at that time.

Over 6.000 years ago, silk is already invented in China. The Chinese were the masters in waving silks and it was so famous among the merchants. If you’re curious about how famous this garment is at that time, it was so famous that they name their trade road as Silk Road. Silks were the main commodity they sold to the foreigners. This garment was the peacekeeper between them and other countries! In short, they were the only silks supplier and of course, if others want to have those high-quality silks, they shouldn’t mess with the Chinese. How marvelous.

Nonetheless, after the west monk got the knowledge of silks making and took it home, silks weren’t China exclusive possession anymore.

7. Paper money

The next invention we should thank China is paper money. They’re the first country to apply the paper money system at the beginning of 9th century AD. While the other countries used the primitive barter or the heavy gold coins, the ancient Chinese had theirs in a more sophisticated and simpler way. They’re indeed years ahead from the rest of the world.

The paper money from China later introduced us to the current money system. It would be a bummer to bring heavy coin or thing just to buy a cup of coffee. This Chinese invention is clever. Now, thanks to them we don’t need to bring anything heavy in our pocket!

6. Umbrella

Next time when it’s raining and you’re reaching for your umbrella, you might want to say a ‘thank you’ to the Chinese because they’re the inventor for that. Without this invention, every rainy day is going to be a wet day for us.

Umbrella is first invented about 3700 ago by Lu Ban. Even though there’s no written literature who explicitly mentioned him as the umbrella creator, legend in China suggested that Lu Ban is the inventor. In a rainy day, it was said, he was inspired when some kids wore lotus leaf to cover their head from their falling rain. Thus, he tried to build the first umbrella. Using simple frame, he covered it with silk and created a waterproof layer above the silks by using wax. His invention has helped us through the angry rain for so many times over the centuries.

5. Toilet Paper

When we go to the toilet, the first thing you would check is the toilet paper. Sure, who wants to go doing their do in the toilet without the toilet tissue? That’ll be gross. For that, we should again thank the Chinese ancestors for inventing toilet paper and teach us the importance of being hygiene when nature calls.

When it comes about sanitary and a lot of things, the ancient Chinese was modern among their ancient fellows. As European used a sponge on a stick, American used corn, and their Asian neighborhood chose using leaf, China already used toilet paper.

Yes, it was the Chinese who came with the idea of toilet paper. Although they didn’t get the credit for this, some old literature from 100 BC showed that the ancient Chinese already using toilet paper. It was also made a massive production, indicating that the people highly concerned about their hygiene.

Thanks to this invention we won’t have the awkward moment to shove corn on our butt. They literally save our butts.

4. Toothbrush

If you ever wonder where the toothbrush is invented, you’ll be happy to know the answer now. It’s one of the Chinese inventions that do good deeds for many. While toothbrush wasn’t yet invented, people used some variations of substances which you’ll refuse to put on your mouth today. For example, charcoal that was famous in Arabian culture.

China is the pioneer in the toothbrush business.

It was in Ming dynasty when the toothbrush invented. And as this invention was one of Chinese best inventions, it’s also one of Chinese greatest dynasty. In 1498, the first toothbrush is made by attaching coarse horse hairs to a bone or bamboo stick. There’s also another variation using pick hairs for the brush. Although it sounds kind of disgusting, it was the best they could have. Plus, they clean the animal hairs before using it. Hygiene is always their number one priority so let’s not frown too deep for the use of horse hairs there.

However, as it might appear and as it can be judged from the little knowledge, it’s not China that brought toothbrush to the world attention. It’s the Europeans. This occurrence happened because Chinese had the tendency to keep their inventions as a secret. But, if I was one of them, I’ll probably do the same. After all, those are brilliant inventions they have!

3. Kite

Although there are fewer people playing kite nowadays, kite is very famous in its time. It was more than a plaything, as well. In early history, people use kite for many proposes. Fishing, measuring length, messaging for short distance, and testing the wind are the few fields kite often found. It was such a grand, especially for the military. Unfortunately, kite fame evaporates gradually. This once a great invention is largely in the museum as a display.

However, the greatness of kite invention is unbeatable back to 3.000 years ago. It’s loved by many for various purposes. Adults and children always had the wish to play it once in their life.

2. Alcohol

Estimated, more than two billion people in earth drinks alcohol. However, it’s probably not half that knows, alcohol is firstly invented by the Chinese. Is anyone surprised by this fact? Some of us might look at it with a disbelief look. But thousands years ago, it’s proven that Chinese is the first to know any alcoholic beverages.

Until 2013, the first maker of alcohol is known from the Arabian Peninsula, so it might shock some people to know that alcohol is invented by China. Yet, an excavation of pottery dated from 9.000 years ago in Henan broke the theory. Apparently, the Chinese had known the taste of alcohol years before the Arabian. Although surprising, this discovery is understandable. Chinese main trading partner had always been the Arabian. Accordingly, China seemed to believe their trade partner a lot because if there’s any of their inventions went to the outside world it’s usually from their trusted Arabian.

In ancient China, alcohol is mostly served for religious ritual or made as an offering to the spirits. For consumption, from an archaeology data of an oracle bone in the Shang Dynasty, the Chinese appreciated their invention highly, they loved it.

1. Tea

While tea party is less familiar in Chinese culture, they’re still the original inventor of this light drink.

It was thousand yours ago by Shennong. The name known as Chinese father of agriculture, a title that suited him so much since his discovery of tea had a great impact of the world beverages now. After he discovered tea, it eventually became a popular drink among the populations. In the Tang dynasty, it was enjoyed by every class. Tea erased the boundaries and differences between them. Chinese also made the first monograph of tea production entitled Cha Jing or literally translated as The Book of Tea.

Although it might come exaggerating, this Chinese invention is magical. There’s possibly no one on earth that despises this drink. Tea is suitable for any condition and a safe choice for any occasions. Just how great Chinese invention scan be?

It’s still amazed me greatly of how advanced is ancient China in their inventions. They work so hard while the rest of the world slept. Countless brilliant inventions from theirs had shaped the world history and it wasn’t only in a small quantity but a big one. If it’s not for their inventions we won’t have the sweet privilege to have the smartphone in our hands, nor the internet. We won’t know the delicious and healthy drink called tea. Our bathroom habit might be still primitive if they didn’t invent toilet papers. Chinese invention shad utterly done a great deal for our life. It’s unfortunate that they didn’t get enough credit for how extravagant their creations were to our civilization.

Thus, as we know of that now, let’s get them the credit for their fabulous inventions. We owe them a lot to make our life easier!

Tags: ancient Chinese inventions, Chinese inventions, list of ancient Chinese inventions


Ancient Impossible

Ever wondered where some of your everyday objects come from. Well have a look at some of these ancient inventions that we still use today.

Nowadays, if you have bad breath and are planning on making plenty of conversation you can just pop in some chewing gum or a mint and the problem is solved.

But what did the Ancient Egyptians do when they had an important mummification consultation and their breath smelt like they were dead already?

It turns out, much the same thing. They boiled a mixture of herbs and spices like frankincense, myrrh and cinnamon and then mixed in some honey. With a quick chew on one of those pellets, they were sorted and could breathe easy again.

Alarm Clocks

Today, a lot of people tend to use their mobile phones or a digital alarm clock to get themselves up on a morning for work, but those inventions all have their roots in one thing – a device that can make a lot of noise at a certain time.

And one of the first such devices was owned by philosopher Plato, way back in 428-348 BC. Plato used a large water clock with a sound similar to a water organ to let him know when his lectures would begin at dawn.

The first mechanical alarm clocks appeared in the 15th Century, and were set by pushing a pin into one of a series of holes on a clock face.

Door Locks
We take the fact we can just lock our front doors at night for granted nowadays, with our tiny keys and delicately formed lock mechanisms.

But it turns out the Ancient Egyptians had a remarkably similar thing, just quite a bit bigger. Way back in 4,000BC, the Egyptians had a tumbler lock which was two feet in length.

A large bolt was attached to the door and connected with pins, each with a different pattern. The key was unique to the lock, and the whole mechanism was made out of wood.

Concrete
You might associate concrete with huge industrial buildings or modern motorways, but it was being used by the Romans 2,100 years ago for construction.

Using a mixture of slaked lime and volcanic ash, known as pozzolana, they made a paste which when mixed with some volcanic rocks made a strong building material.

Pozzolana even set quickly in water, meaning water based builds were a possibility all the way back then. It might have been a little weaker, but it is certainly as close as you could get to modern cement in the ancient world.

We use or read from paper almost every day, and we owe that privilege to the ancient Chinese. Cai Lun of the Eastern Dynasty, who lived from 25AD to 220AD, invented the world’s first big paper production using rope, rags, fish nets and tree bark.

The word paper originates from papyrus, a thick plant material most associated with the Egyptians, but it was the Chinese who first crafted paper for specialised writing and printing use and spread it to the world through the lucrative Silk Road.


WHITE MALE INVENTIONS

Trains, planes, cars, rockets, telescopes, tires, telephones, radios, television, electricity, atomic energy, computers, and fax machines. All miracles made possible by the minds and spirits of men with names like Ampere, Bell, Caselli, Edison, Ohm, Faraday, Einstein, Cohen, Teller, Shockley, Hertz, Marconi, Morse, Popov. Ford, Volta, Michelin, Dunlop, Watt, Diesel, Galileo, and other “dead white males.”

All reports indicate that we have a booming economy right now, but few understand why this is so. I hate to disappoint my friends on the radical left, but it has nothing to do with Bonnie and Clyde Clinton or the Democratic Party, or with any other party for that matter.

What I’m about to say is tantamount to blasphemy in this politically correct day and age yet truth is truth. How long are we going to pretend that origins play no role in our world, the origins of the inventions, science, technology, and economics of the world in which we live?

Our present economic boom is due to the revolution in electronics and computer technology. But saying this is not enough, for these things didn’t just spring into existence by themselves. They have traceable origins. And all of our “booms,” throughout history, have the same origins as this one.

It’s no mystery. Just look at the list of names in your history books, and their national origins. The great majority of “booms” past and present have been brought about by the genius and inventiveness of that most “despicable” of genders, the dreaded white male, or, to be exact, by specific, individual white males. This is not to discredit the many contributions coming from non-whites, but fact is fact. Our most important and consequential inventions have come almost exclusively from white males.

Curse me, or all white males, if you wish, that changes nothing. But if you call me a liar, you’ll have to come up with the proof that I’m wrong. Remember, I didn’t say there were no important contributions by non-whites I said the overwhelming majority. Of course, I know about such things as the Chinese and gunpowder, but they didn’t take it much beyond firecrackers and pyrotechnics.

And I know about the pyramids and masonry of South America and the zero of the Arabs. Would we have atomic physics and electricity if it hadn’t been for the ancient Greek philosophers who, for example, had the idea that all matter consists of tiny atoms? Aristotle (5th century, B.C., 25th century pre P.C.) used electric charges to treat gout! Archimedes perceived the center of gravity of solids, cylinders, and spheres.

From the basic discoveries of Greek civilization it went to the Romans and after the fall of Rome, it passed to later Europeans who expanded on this scientific knowledge. In modern times these ideas were developed by such Europeans as Volta, Ampere, Watts, Bell, Edison, and Einstein, who provided the basis for most of the technical wonders of today. All of them dreaded white males.

Maybe you got your enlightenment from one of the Ivy-League institutions of dis-education. Maybe they taught you that it’s all the result of white racism and oppression. That every time a potential Einstein, Edison, or Ford popped up in the Third World, a White hit-squad would swoop down and eliminate him before he had a chance to prove himself. Or maybe their schools refused to teach him in the Ebonics of his day. Or maybe they didn’t have proper daycare facilities. Or maybe our would-be innovator came from a “dysfunctional family.”

But the facts tell us that many of the great men pursued their genius at great personal risk–like the astronomer Galileo, who proved that the earth revolves around the sun. He and other men of genius and courage refused to be suppressed even if it meant their lives. They would permit no race, gender, group or class to keep them from their pursuit of truth and excellence whatever the cost.

If you eliminate, suppress, or debase the while male, you kill the goose that laid the golden egg. If you ace him out with “affirmative” action, exile him from the family, teach him that he’s a blight on mankind, then bon voyage to our society. We will devolve into a turd-world cesspool.

Where has there ever before in history been a group of human beings who have brought about the likes of the Magna Carta, the US Constitution, and the countless life-saving and life- improving inventions that we now enjoy?

Now it is certainly true that China did lead the world in technology and commercial inventiveness about 1,000 years ago. They had great coal-mining operations, gunpowder, six-masted sailing ships, and intense commercial enterprise. But it all collapsed because the elites, the long-nailed Mandarins, centralized control𔂿,000 years before Mao–and crushed the expansion and inventions. Does this mean we should sit back and let ourselves be governed by someone just because he’s a white male?

Of course, it doesn’t. It means simply that we shouldn’t suppress anyone, including white males. Let our God-given gifts run free in a free and just society, free from the oppression and tyranny of social engineers. If anyone has gifts beyond our own, be he a white male or other, be grateful. Maybe we have gifts that in some small way can contribute something of value as well. One way or another, we’re all in the same boat.

Few of us have truly outstanding gifts. And most of us have to humbly accept that there are others around who are more gifted than we are. In a democratic society it’s not for Big Brother to decide who shall thrive and who shall struggle in the hive.


Lost Knowledge & Technology Of The Ancient World. And A Random Collection Of Inventions Showing How Inventive Humankind Is Given The Opportunity To Play At Tinkering

Documentary | Heron of Alexandria Ancient Discoveries | SD


Almost two millennia before the rest of humanity entered the industrial age, the Greek inventor Hero invented the steam engine, wind-powered machinery, and theories of light that couldn't be improved for centuries. And then he invented some really crazy stuff. Scientific geniuses have to pull off a tricky balancing act before they're even born. Great minds like Albert Einstein or Isaac Newton were born at precisely the right time for their ideas to be really revolutionary - just far enough ahead of their time to be trailblazers, but not so far ahead that people had no idea what they were talking about.
The ancient world had machines.

Machines Of Ancient China


There seems to have been a major loss of knowledge after the Roman empire fell (the Christian Age was a Dark Age for knowledge, invention and technology in general and they probably burnt everything they didn't consider holy as is common in the desert religions of the middle east).


Amazing Ancient Inventions We Still Can't Figure Out - History Documentary


There are always inventors amoungst humankind who, time and circumstance willing, invent alot of stuff and some of it spreads and changes culture forever. Inventions are like humankinds stock of toys that they use to make their life easier doing what they have always done (commerce and baby making, empire building being a later invention by the greedy). Society also goes through dark ages where the knowledge of a previous culture is completely lost and then later rediscovered, to some extent.

6 Advanced Ancient Inventions We Still Can't Figure Out

We’ve lost the secret to making some of history’s most useful inventions, and for all of our ingenuity and discoveries, our ancestors of thousands of years ago are still able to baffle us with their ingenuity and discoveries. We have developed the modern equivalent of some of these inventions, but only very recently.

Graham Hancock talks about this map and other maps like it which is a good introduction to the topic




Piri Re'is Map of 1513

There is a map, dating from 1513, which was made by a man named Piri Ibn Haji Memmed, otherwise known as Piri Re'is. This man was an Admiral in the Turkish navy. Today we only have a fragment of the original map. Piri Re'is made a number of very interesting claims about this map: He claimed it was made from approximately 20 original source maps He claimed the western portion of the map was obtained from Christopher Columbus He claimed some of the source maps were dated from the time of Alexander the Great He claimed some of the maps were based upon mathematics These are pretty amazing claims.


Officially Antarctica was discovered in the early 1800's. Its existence is said to have been theorized by the ancient Greeks who realizing the amount of land in the northern hemisphere assumed that this mass must be balanced by a proportionate mass in the southern hemisphere.

Also, the continent of Antarctica, according to modern science, has been covered with ice for millions (sic) of years. This would make it impossible for anyone, especially the ancients to actually map its coastline.

Unfortunately for some there are maps, dating from at least the early 1500's that not only indicate the existence of Antarctica, but also map its coastline in amazing detail.

One such map is the Oronteus Finaeus World Map of 1531. The section of this map indicting Antarctica is shown below (click image to enlarge).

Well if the existence was only theorized, the people developing these theories were also able to theorize the coastal features of this theoretical continent.


5. The Blast Furnace

A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace that is used for smelting to produce industrial metals such as iron, lead, or copper. Blast furnaces were built during the Han dynasty of China in the early 200s B.C. Early Chinese metallurgists built these blast furnaces that pumped out a blast of air into a heated pack of iron ore. This then led to the production of cast iron.

Interestingly, these early blast furnaces had clay walls and they used phosphorus-containing minerals for flux. In the later years, a gifted mechanical engineer and metallurgist of the Eastern Han Dynasty named Du Shi improved upon the blast furnace by applying the power of waterwheels to piston-bellows in forging cast iron.

The Chinese blast furnace was used actively until the 20th century.


1 The Implementation Of A Red Cross&ndashLike Medical Service

Larrey and fellow surgeon Dr. Pierre-Francois Percy practiced Red Cross services three-quarters of a century before its establishment. Larrey invented the horse-pulled, &ldquoflying ambulance&rdquo (ambulance volante) that could transport up to four wounded quickly and in relative comfort to the nearest hospital. Then Percy went a step further. In 1799, he introduced the mobile surgical unit that could take the operating table onto the battlefield.

This new French mobile medicine did not take nationality or affiliation into consideration when treating the wounded. Larrey and Percy treated all without differentiation&mdashto the extent that they could. Even if it took another few decades for the idea to catch on universally, the pilot program was successfully in place, thanks to the belief in liberty, equality, and fraternity born of the revolution.

Incidentally, the move toward universal health coverage and socialized medicine in France is largely attributable to Dr. Guillotin, who oversaw the establishment of the first health committee in parliament in 1790. [10]


Se videoen: Podivnosti světa 3 Podzemí (Januar 2022).